Why did you settle in Mysore

India Stories 2011

Transcript

1 Dr. Christoph Lübbert Viktoriastraße 36 D Darmstadt CL 2001 Darmstadt Tel:, T-Mob: Em: In: Bengaluru / Maisuru, Feb.-Apr India stories, lecture v4 / December 2011 India stories CL_2011_v4.doc India stories 2011 F1: Title slide In the Aka55plus announcement about In this lecture India is associated with Theravada Buddhism. This is not a misprint: Although Buddhism has been practically extinct in India itself for many centuries, its historical sites in the Ganges plain (today Bihar and Uttar Pradesh) were and are the pilgrimage destinations of tens of thousands of Buddhists from all over the world. The connection that I am making here between India and Buddhism is more of a private nature. I don't intend to deliver a crash course in Theravada Buddhism, for example. In Germany, Switzerland, Belgium, France and the USA there are a few friendly associations that support the extraordinary social and ethical activities of a certain Theravâda Buddhist monastery in Karnataka / South India through donations, sponsorships and also through personal commitment on site. In Darmstadt it is the DBHV (German-Buddhist Humanitarian Association). There, in this monastery, I also go from time to time and make myself useful to the best of my ability. As with my last stay in 2004, I also let my family and friends take part in my stay in Karnataka this year 2011 with sporadic s. The destinations were less touristy: everyday life was what drew me there, and meeting old and new Theravadin Buddhist and Hindu friends. These s are the material from which this lecture was created, enriched with a few photos; please do not expect a slide show. Contents (1) Bangalore (2) Bangalore (3) Bangalore (4) Mysore from Sabine from Essen to Sabine (5) Mysore / Saraswathipuram from Susanne from Cologne to Susanne (6) Mysore / Saraswathipuram ... 14

2 from son Sebastian from Darmstadt to Sebastian (7) Bangalore from Gerhard from Bad Rappenau to Gerhard from Angela from Mönchenglattbach to Angela (8) Maisuru (Mysore) from Susanne from Cologne to Susanne (9) Maisuru (Mysore) (1) Bangalore Hello Beloved family: Gertraut, Sebastian in Darmstadt and Felix in Málaga, have been in Bangalore, the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka / South India, for a few days. Karnataka is located exactly in the middle of southern India and borders - in the west on the Arabian Sea and the small state of Goa, - in the south on Kerala (capital Trivandrum, in the very south of the state) - and on Tamil Nadu (capital Chennai, formerly Madras) the east coast); - in the east on Andhra Pradesh (capital Hyderabad) - and in the north on Maharashtra (capital Mumbai formerly Bombay). Now I stand in front of the monastery wall of the Buddha Vihara in Gandhinagar, the old town of Bangalore. The two gazelles and the wheel in the middle are a recurring symbol at Buddhist monasteries and temples. They are reminiscent of the first discourse that the Buddha gave in the 6th century BC after his awakening (bodhi) to the former companions of his 6-year-old asceticism in the Isipatana animal park (Sarnath near Benares). I am turning the wheel of teaching (Dhamma) on, he said. The omega-shaped arch below is reminiscent of the typical old Buddhist architectural style F2: State of Karnataka in South India F3: Monastery wall of the Buddha Vihara in Gandhinagar India StoriesCL_2011_v4.doc

3 of the typical old Buddhist architectural style, which was used until the 9th century AD. used all over India. When I got here at about 2 o'clock in the morning, everything was barricaded and the guard boy was deeply asleep; I just climbed over the monastery wall and the noises woke the boy. I want to stay here in the Mahabodhi monastery in Bangalore and in the Mahabodhi boys home in Mysore for 2 months and make myself a bit useful. The climate is still pleasant (if you don't move too much). The crowd in the streets of Gandhinagar, the old town of Bangalore (Bengaluru), the noise, the many yellow tuktuks and all the friendly people, ... it makes me feel at home. Tomorrow I will be a temporary monk (pâli: papaja). That means, first of all, a break in broadcasting. Best regards, Christoph F4: In the bow it says: Hatred is never appeased by hatred in this world. By non-hatred alone is hatred appeased. This is a Law Eternal. The Buddha F5: Tuktuk traffic in Gandhinagar / Bengaluru (2) Bangalore Hello everyone, the clouds were brewing earlier, now it is pouring down like buckets; the monastery is under water, almost like ours in April! In most other areas of India it is actually the more pleasant time of the year, the dry season. In Bangalore, the dry season is less clearly defined than the rainy season. It rains again and again practically all year round. Bangalore is located approx. F6 / F7: downpour in the monastery India storiesCL_2011_v4.doc

4 At the moment, as announced, I am following the "holy walk" of a "temporary monk" (in Pâli: papaja) in the Theravâda Buddhist monastery "Mahabodhi Vihara" in the Gandhinagar old town of Bangalore / Karnataka for 2 weeks. The rain here makes it easier for me, together with my monk friends, to reflect a little more on myself and to practice silence. Q8: But especially the recitations and puja rites several times a day, the first in the morning at 5am, and the last at 6pm in the evening, have done it to me. I have learned about 20% of the many Pâli recitations by heart, the rest I have to read off. Q9: As a small example: The first 5 moral self-commitments in Pâli: 1. Pânatipâtâ Adinnâdâna Kâmesumicchâcârâ Musâvâdâ ... F8: Morning puja at 5.30 in the meditation hall 5. Sûra-meraya-majja-pamâdatthâna ... Pâli was a mixture North Indian dialects particularly related to Magadhi in the Kingdom of Magadha, as well as Kosali in the Kingdom of Kosala in the Ganges plain at the time of the Buddha (c. century BC) and at that time served especially for commercial communication. The great master (Buddha) decided then that his teaching should be spread in Pâli, a language that everyone understood. And not in Sanskrit (this language was reserved for its competitors, the Vedic Brahmins, as a scholarly, mantra and secret language, but not as a colloquial language). The old three-basket (Ti-Pitaka), the "doctrine of the elderly monks" (= Thera Vâda), was written about 350 years after the Buddha's death in Pâli and not in Sanskrit, but not in North India, the homeland Buddhas, but in Sri Lanka, where Pâli was imported with Theravâda Buddhism as a sacred Buddhist language. The colloquial language there is Sinhala, which comes from the same Indo-Aryan root as Pâli, Sanskrit, Prakrti dialects and other modern North Indian languages ​​such as e.g. Originates from Hindi. Pâli is still present in all Theravâda traditions, whether in Sri-Lanka, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Cambodja, Laos, partly. also Vietnam, Indonesia the "holy language", and every fully ordained monk (bhikkhu) should know it. - From "can" can generally. be less talked about; most monks can only memorize a vast volume of Pali texts from the Ti-Pitaka. This knowledge by heart was also common in our Christian monasteries (in the church language Latin) and did not yet mean that one had mastered church Latin. Stories of IndiaCL_2011_v4.doc

5 Reciting the Pali texts loudly and together is a kind of collective meditation. In the Christian world, this type of prayer has unfortunately been pushed back somewhat in favor of only "religious information transmission". Here, in the Theravada monastery, recitation is still in full bloom. The abbot of Mahabodhi Vihara, Acharya Buddharakkhita (short: "Bada Bhante" = something like "honored father" / Acharya means teacher) will be 90 years old in March; and there is a big festival going on here in the monastery. For this it is already being cleaned violently. So dear ones, I hope to be able to report back to you soon. With Mettâ (as they say later here) Christoph F10: Bada Bhante Abbot of the monastery in Bengaluru (3) Bangalore hello dear friends, some of you are already used to receiving e-mails from me when I am traveling. I also send my notes especially to the participants in our Buddhism seminar in Aka55plus in Darmstadt. This time I was drawn to a Theravada Buddhist monastery in Bangalore / Karnataka / South India for 2 months: It is the Mahabodhi Buddha Vihara in the old Gandhinagar district of Bangalore. (Vihara is a Pâli word and simply means place / refuge.) This Buddhist monastery in South India is actually a big exception these days: Buddhism is from all over India, whose birthplace was in the 6th century BC. in the Ganges plain in northern India (today: Uttar Pradesh and Bihar), almost completely disappeared for many centuries except for a few peripheral areas: in Nepal, in Ladakh on the border with Tibet in the north and on the border with Burma (Myanmar) in the northeast. The Buddhist monastery in Bangalore is the only larger active Theravâda Buddhist monastery in South India with around 100 young monks (between 6 and 18 years of age) and around 10 older bhikkhus (= fully ordained monks). Q11: The ancient Buddhism of Theravada Buddhism of the so-called small vehicle (Hinayana) established itself very early south of India, in Sri Lanka and east of India, in Burma, Thailand, Cambodja, Laos. North of India and almost all of the rest of East Asia, the various branches of popular Buddhism called the great vehicle (Mâhayana) have settled. India itself is 80-85% ruled by the diverse Hindu religions and only about 15-20% by Islam. Stories of IndiaCL_2011_v4.doc

6 F11: Spread of the world religions The Theravadin Buddhist monastery in Bangalore was founded in the 1950s by master Acharya Buddharakkhita, a former Hindu Brahmin who was an officer in the British Army during World War II and who then professed to ancient Buddhism. The master will reach the memorable age of 90 in March 2011, and the monks have decided to celebrate this with a "Dhammapada Festival" lasting several days. Because the beauty of the Dhammapada F12: Mahabodhi Buddha Vihara, Bengaluru India StoriesCL_2011_v4.doc

7 one of the poetic parts of the Theravada Buddhist "three basket" (Ti Pitaka) was a decisive reason that the Brahmin after his military career in the 2ndWorld War I turned to Buddhism. Since then, Bada Bhante, as the master is affectionately called by the monks, has been working tirelessly to translate many parts of the Pâli canon triad of one of Buddhism's greatest religious writings with, among other things, estimated suttas into English and other languages Dhammapada, which consists of 423 verses. Some of Bada Bhante's books have also been translated into German and are in stock in the Schirner / Darmstadt bookstore. Q13: Stupa of the Mahabodhi monastery in Bangalore My 14-day monastic period (and with it my "retreat") comes to an end tomorrow. This time I dedicated myself especially to the chanting texts, which in the old Pâli language are recited loudly and together several times a day in so-called pujas (devotions) - the first time in the morning at 5:00, the last time at 6:00 pm They are excerpts from the suttas of the Pali Canon. Since the Buddha used to summarize many of his speeches in verse form, it is especially these verses that are suitable for common "chanting". Pâli is an ancient, beautifully melodic language that is simpler and smoother than Sanskrit; in Theravada Buddhism it roughly corresponds to the role of Church Latin in Catholic Christianity. It is a pleasure when you have tuned yourself into the melody and the rhythm of the verses quoted and can keep up with your monk neighbors in reciting. I can already know about 20-30% by heart. Here, as in all Theravada Buddhist monasteries, memorization is very important. It has been treated somewhat disrespectfully in the West since the Enlightenment and it is also used less and less in German schools, a fatal error, I mean, because memorizing the "body-hugging", but also the "meditative" side of human consciousness becomes one way trained, which makes it possible to integrate one's own emotions without compulsion and in a natural way for a goal and to make it usable, be it a learning goal or a spiritual goal. An insight which German teachers and thus also their students seem to have completely lost, which, by the way, I believe, increases the likelihood of psychological crashes in the case of learning difficulties. Well: here in the monastery, of course, this side of consciousness training has the upper hand, whereas the analytical stories of India, which are overly valued and overly emphasized in the West, CL_2011_v4.doc

8 skills are secondary here: The monks can memorize much more easily than me. On the other hand, I am better able to ask critical or philosophical questions or questions in general. In the pujas, however, there is also quiet meditation, even more, it seems to me, than in 2004, when I had also participated here as a monk for a few weeks (papaja) for a few weeks. Technology has also found its way into the monastery. There are internet-enabled PCs in several corners, and if you get on well with the monks, you are allowed to use them from time to time. And I'm taking advantage of that here at the moment to write you s. Q14: On the side I give the monk, Bhante Dhammaloka, who has been responsible for accounting for half a year, some tutoring in bookkeeping. And I notice that from the time when we and Bhante Ananda "renovated" the accounting system here in 2004, I still know so much that Bhante Dhammaloka does not yet know, so that I am somewhat useful in this regard can make. You may notice that Bhante Dhammaloka doesn't look like a South Indian at all. Right. The great majority of the monks of Mahabodhi Vihara come from the extreme north-east of India's border with China and Myanmar so has an East Asian impact. Many of the residents there are Buddhists. Q14: Bhante Dhammaloka, approx. 32 years old. F15: Bhante Sîlacara (here repairing a bed frame) also comes from the northeast. The 21-year-old monk looked after me like a father, made sure that I ate enough (he didn't want to understand that I was trying to get some of my bacon away), introduced me to the monastic rules during my time as a monk, and reminded me of special devotions if I forget her; and he tried to teach me Hindi. However, since I was able to communicate smoothly in English, the Hindi exercise was again crowned with only modest success this time. Bhante Sîlacara speaks Hindi, F15: Bhante Sîlacara, 21Y. Kanara, English and the dialect of its home clan. In the meantime, a warm greeting and see you next report. "May you be happy" (as the monks say; what this wish means in Buddhist terms, later on). Christoph (4) Mysore Dear friends, I have arrived in Mysore, have found Internet access and I would like to tell you a little more. Mysore is about 130 km west of Bangalore in a beautiful area north of the Nile Giri (the "blue mountains"). The day before yesterday I handed in my monk's robe at the monastery. That was again a very formal act in which I was also "forgiven for all my sins". (Was able to send me the stories of India CL_2011_v4.doc

9 Comment on the Bhante (monk) who carried out the ceremony, do not resist the fact that I could actually only do it myself, but he deliberately ignored this comment; but he said I was "on the right track" and even praised my Pâli pronunciation.) Yesterday morning I took the train from Bangalore the 130 km to Mysore, took about 2 hours, cost about 4 EUR. Comfortable, with air conditioning, food included and even a power connection for the notebook. From now on I will only travel by train in India! Q16: Vittho, the caretaker of the children's home picked me up. I know him from 7 years ago. At that time he was a student, today he runs the boys' home, which, like several other social institutions in northern India, is also maintained by the Mahabodhi monastery in Bangalore and financed by German, Swiss, French and Belgian sponsors. F17: Mahabodhi School F16: The Mahabodhi boys 'home in Saraswathipuram F17: A school for the children in the home is also attached to the boys' home; A few children from the surrounding Saraswathipuram district also go there. A smaller half of the boys in the home come from Karnataka, Maharashtra and other southern states, the larger half from Ladakh and especially from Arunachal Pradesh, which is a rather underdeveloped area in the extreme northeast of India, near the border with China and Burma. Almost all of them are Buddhists there. In the rest of India there are almost no Buddhists left. Q18: Two boys from the Mahabodhi home in Saraswathipuram India storiesCL_2011_v4.doc

10 Q19: Vittho had prepared well for my offer to make the necessary repairs in the home and also to donate the material and tools: We went through the whole building immediately after my arrival, and a list of 18 repair tasks emerged, especially in the bathrooms, the toilets, the dining room, in the garden shed and on the roof. Now I have to divide my time well! I don't think I can work through the 18 points completely. Because before I can start repairing, suitable tools have to be purchased. Of course, nothing is left of what I bought 7 years ago (I didn't expect that either; my set of tools, of course, has long since vanished into thin air, i.e. has "got legs"). Two monks from the monastery in Bangalore are always sent to the Mahabodhi home. They are there for the Buddhist upbringing of the children and, just like in the monastery, hold the morning and evening pujas and pala recitations, and all the little ones chant along vigorously. But they also take care of many practical things and discuss these with the 10 or so wardens. Each warden has a group of about 20 children to look after. Here Bhante Sîlarakkhita, one of the two monks. He helped me e.g. with enthusiasm while repairing the approx. 200 seats in the dining room. F19: Vittho (r.), Head of the Mahabodhi Home in Saraswathipuram / Mysore / Karnataka / South India F20: Bhante Sîlarakkhita in Mysore, around 19 years old Gertraut my wife who stayed at home will say what he is doing with his aid activities in India: I could use it much more urgently in my own house; there is at least as much to do; especially now when laying new parquet in the whole apartment! She is right, but working here in the delightful foreign country is not just working, but rather absorbing Indian culture with such everyday activities, so to speak, than if you as a tourist visit one Hindu temple after the other and take photos would! Stories of IndiaCL_2011_v4.doc

11 Q21: The home is near a beautiful lake with many water birds (allegedly also a few crocodiles in it) and in a rather rich outskirts of Mysore, called Saraswathipuram (= city of the Saraswathi; this is one of the Hindu wives of Brahma, the world demiurge) who is responsible for education, muse and science): F22: Magnificent, bulky villas, the construction of which reminds me a lot of the villa districts of Buenos Aires or Tandil / Argentina (we had lived there for a while). Heavy concrete falls over the windows against sun and rain. Eaves are unknown here! Everything barred; mostly 2 comfortable Japanese cars in the barricaded courtyard; now and then a sleepy guard in front of it. The splendor of the villas stands out against the condition of the streets: it is just as miserable as it was 7 years ago. The sewer system runs half-open in trenches along the roadside and is only partially covered with heavy granite slabs. At night you really have to be careful not to make a mistake and end up in the sewage. Q21: Lake of Saraswathipuram Q22: Villa in Saraswathipuram near the Mahabodhi home The sun is getting more intense, they say here, summer starts in March and lasts until the beginning of August. But the climate is still very pleasant because the place is relatively high, around 1000 m above sea level. I now have to go to Craftsman Street in Mysore City to buy the first materials. You will hear from me again. Greetings, Christoph von Sabine from Essen Helau from the Rhineland to tropical Mysore! I am impressed by your self-experimented tutoring in Theravada Buddhism. Admire your physical fitness, which stands out from the widespread self-indulgence, whether justified or not. So, apart from physical and mental cleansing, you are a kind of supervisor for institutions sponsored by Germans? I was very surprised at the decline in Buddhism in India. My level of knowledge is apparently decades behind.You just get older! Bye, hope for more news! Sabine to Sabine Dear Sabine, I'm not a supervisor here at all. And Buddhism has not existed in India for 800 years (except in some northern outskirts)! In the Ganges plain in the north it was destroyed in the century by the invasions of the Muslim Turkic peoples; in the south about the same period mainly ousted by the new Hindu cult of Shiva. The "new" religions around the Shiva and Vishnu family of gods, which arose around the 5th century AD, experienced their first climax with the 1st century AD. At the time of the Buddha (c. Century BC), only a few insignificant forerunner deities existed, so the new ones are around 1000 years younger than Buddha. Stories of IndiaCL_2011_v4.doc

12 But in the last few years Buddhism has been picking up again in India. 50 years ago people still spoke of 0.1%, today some claim that 5% of the population of India would call themselves Buddhists, I find that a bit exaggerated, but maybe it is actually 0.5-1% (?). This is partly due to the Tibetan refugees, but partly also due to a movement of the lowest castes or the casteless (the untouchables) who feel drawn to Buddhism because it rejects castes. Ambedkar (, Indian lawyer and social reformer), coming from one of the lowest castes, is a key name. So it's just the opposite of what you mean. I wish you a nice carnival. Best regards, Christoph (5) Mysore / Saraswathipuram Hello dear friends, It is a bit exhausting to stay at work at one stretch when the power goes out for 10 minutes every quarter of an hour. It's been going on for 10 days now (as long as I'm here in the home in Mysore). You can understand that here people tend to rely on hand-operated devices. First of all, however, I bought a powerful drill with all accessories that I can now only use intermittently. And so it happens that repairs that are actually necessary are simply omitted. In 4 days I managed to drill about 10 holes in walls or beams, making 2.5 holes per day - a feat! What? However, hurray! Especially this afternoon, the electricity god was gracious with a few interruptions (I still have to find out who that of the many Hindu deities is!) and I was finally able to finish the tool room. Karnataka has to struggle with the power supply every year, because it comes mainly from hydropower plants, and they have performance problems in the summer time (March-August), when it rains less. It gets hotter and hotter during the day! When the sun goes down, life wakes up. The dog that has been dozing on the pavement all day perks up and starts to growl. The students from the neighboring state dormitory take care of their completely drunk "Security Guard". He gets a princely salary from the state of Rp per month = 200 EUR / month for his "guardianship", which the lean construction workers on the other side of us can only dream of; they sleep at night next to the construction site on the empty plastic bags F23: sleeping dog for the cement; They sometimes have a wife + child. with it. At the beginning of the month the "Security Guard" is blue, towards the end of the month he gets sober because he runs out of money for drinking. If he gets too crazy in his drunkenness and quarrels loudly with his wife at 11 p.m., two policemen come and beat him up every now and then; then he loudly appeals to the holy monks next door (our Mahabodhi home) and asserts that they have confirmed that he is a good person! Whenever he sees us in the hallways of the home, he makes a respectful gesture of greeting. In order to be able to communicate with the people on the street and in the small general stores, you don't necessarily have to speak the local language (Kanara / Canada the sounds r, d and l are pronounced almost the same), some English and a few friendly hand signals do it too . But there is one thing you HAVE to master: It is the South Indian "yes" (or sometimes "yes and no") head movement. To do this, imagine having a hinge in the neck at about mouth level, the axis of rotation of which is horizontal and orthogonal to the front of the face. Stories of IndiaCL_2011_v4.doc

13 Whenever you agree with something (or even if you do not completely agree) you make this head movement with a smile and with great friendliness. For God's sake, just don't nod or shake your head seriously in the German way! That would "offend" people and the willingness to communicate (by whatever means) would suddenly drop to zero! This movement has become part of my flesh and blood. But when I get back to Germany, this ability will have disappeared almost without a trace. It is an inseparable part of the South Indian culture and cannot be exported. The power of the thousand Indian deities seems to have decreased a bit in the last 10 years, at least in the cities; perhaps as a result of the ongoing technological development, which despite all the bumpiness can be felt here more and more? (The small yellow / red painted Shiva temple at the beginning of the street of the auto mechanics, electricians and laundries here in Saraswathipuram, which used to be open, is almost always closed.) Every deity has a different name in every city. You can recognize them mainly by their symbols. Q24: Hindu deity from the Vishnu family. (You can tell from the vertical line on the forehead and the black face) That was a great achievement of the "intellectuals" ie the Brahmin caste at the turn of the 1st millennium AD, when the "new" religions around the new families of gods were in their first prime and among other things also pushed back Buddhism and Jainism in South India (i.e. about years after (!) Buddha or Mahavira): They provided Shiva, Ganesha, Kumara, Parvati (= Uma = Durga = Kali = Menakshi = ... ??? ), as well as Laksmi, Vishnu / Krshna / Rama / Narashima / Jagannath, Balaram, Brahma, Saraswathi, Gayatri, ... with characteristic symbols and so-called Vahanas (riding animals / accompanying animals), degraded the formerly independent female deities to the wives of the new male gods and so tried to bring some overview into the chaos of gods and goddesses: Even the illiterate could roughly estimate which deity he was worshiping at the moment. My Buddhist young, funny friend Achal (from Ladakh), who sometimes helps me with shopping and also lends a hand, told me a joke yesterday that I don't want to withhold from you: a Christian, a Muslim and a Hindu are all in one Small plane. That gets engine damage, and the captain tells people to parachute immediately. People turn pale. But the Christian pulls himself together, utters a quick prayer "Lord Jesus Christ, protect me!" and jumps. Then the Muslim also jumps on his lips with the cry - "Allah-hu-aqbar, bism-illä rahman arrahîm alhamdulillah". Only the Hindu does nothing. Why not? He's not sure which of his many deities is responsible for aircraft problems. Well, dear ones; before Vittho switches off the house computer, I quickly sneak close to it with my notebook to catch the WLAN, which I can use to send this message to the airwaves. Until next time, Christoph India StoriesCL_2011_v4.doc

14 from Susanne from Cologne I received the message over the airwaves! Hello dear Christoph, I was very amused again, about the wobbling necks, the joke of your "companion" and the drunk Guard too. It reminds me of ours in Nepal, who was constantly stoned and certainly couldn't do one thing: guarding our belongings. Sad of course, these day laborers with their families ... But are you sure that the head shaking cannot be exported, I am of the opinion that culture is an export commodity, so communication doesn't necessarily work, but tourism does. Then stay the way you are and greetings for the night until the next message. Susanne to Susanne Yes, I am sure that this head movement cannot be exported! And culture is of course NOT an export commodity (that was probably a joke of yours or it comes from one of your cultural management scripts that you have to learn by heart for your advanced training ??) Tomorrow we're going to Bangalore for the big Dhammapada festival. Greetings & kiss, Christoph (6) Mysore / Saraswathipuram Dear friends, I relax in the cooler night air. From a distance you can hear the high-spirited noises of the drunk "Security Guard" next door. The moon is half and increasing. A few days ago it was a fine sickle. Exactly in the position that is depicted in the long curled hair of the mighty god Shiva. I have a special relationship with Shiva, the Indian peasant god who loves dance (less with Vishnu, the god of the Kshatriyas and Brahmins, i.e. the Indian nobles and priests). Q25: When I sat quietly in front of a lingam in an abandoned Shiva temple in Kajuraho in 1994 (that is the ancient phallus symbol which symbolizes the god), Shiva "told" me everything about himself. The water from sweat and wet eyes ran half an hour down on me. I had no idea about him before. He is the god of growth and decay, of harvest periods and storms, of the moon and the seasons, of meditation, the task of the supposed "self" and the destruction of all illusions! The strange encounter with this collective authority was so strong that a terrible lumbago, which I caught in our software company the day before that trip to India, and because of which I almost interrupted the trip, was completely gone in half an hour and no more returned. Back at home I read everything I could about Shiva in F25: Shiva (statue in Bengaluru), and everything was confirmed. In that half hour in the abandoned temple at Kajuraho, I had completely "understood" the Indian authority "Shiva" without ever having known about it. Stories of IndiaCL_2011_v4.doc

15 Today I was busy: bulk shopping with friend and helper Achal in Mysore City, Ashoka Road in the craftsmen's quarter, near Mahatma-Gandhi Square: wooden panels, towel hooks, screws, nails, 4 large dust bins (garbage cans), floor tiles, etc. Enjoyable conversation with the shop owner over tea or coffee after a successful purchase. "Where are you from? Ah, Germany!"."I was officer in the army, and I like Boris Becker and Steffi Graf" "long ago", I say. And he gives me a small "reduction" in the price, which he initially refused! Then, in the children's home, in the blazing sun and in front of a changing crowd, first the little ones who are not yet going to school, later the older ones who just came from the Mahabodhi school next door, I put a wooden panel in front of a tangle of water pipes so that the little ones there don't fall in, and then I made a door for the garden shed. The boys always want to help, and you have to be careful not to hurt their arms and hands, which are shuffling between them, with a hammer or drill. A bit exhausting, but lovable: the curious, open looks and the efforts of the helpfulness. Patience and friendliness are required when correcting and keeping away from the devices lying around ... Schwupp a drill has disappeared that you just need; whoops the hammer is gone! I always assign a "policeman" to take care of the things, and he does that with great diligence! It almost seems more interesting to them than watching cricket TV in the evening. Every now and then I freak out, shouting: Go away now !! And then they withdraw, somewhat saddened, for a while. It is better to involve them in the work: "Please help me now; fill the dust bin with all these papers, liefs and rubbush that are falling around!" And they are enthusiastic! In the meantime I can distinguish the groups of around 190 children and adolescents quite well: Most are from the Chakma tribe (from Arunachal Pradesh), the next most common group are Ladakhi. In between there are many from other tribes in the "Seven Sisters" (which, like Arunachal Pradesh, are located in the underdeveloped extreme north-east of India on the border with China and Myanmar); and some from Karnataka and Maharashtra (completely different in type and mentality!). "Good morning sir, how are you?" (It's 5 p.m., though!); and I reply "Good evening my Boy, you are looking good, tomorrow you'll help me install the hooks in the kitchen?" Stories of IndiaCL_2011_v4.doc

16 The boys grow up here with 5 (!) Languages: their respective native language (which some have already forgotten), Hindi, Kanara (= Canada, the local language in Karnataka) and of course English and finally: the Buddhist rite language Pâli . They are great at memorizing! Q26: I recently recognized a highly intelligent boy here, Jodi (his spiritual name is "Dhammapala" = "the fruit of Buddhist teachings"). At that time, in 2004, he was just 5 years old apprentice monk in the Mahabodhi monastery in Bangalore. He had memorized the Dhammapada (that is one of the poetic parts of the Theravāda Buddhist three-basket with at least 400 five-liners in Pâli!) In a few weeks and therefore became the favorite boy of Bada Bhante (the great Acharya [= teacher] Buddharakkhita, of the monastery) who will soon be 90 years old): I tested the boy: he still knew the Dhammapada by heart! Q26: Jody, 2004, alias Dhammapala Tomorrow I am going back to Bangalore for 2 weeks to attend the big "Dhammapada Festival" in honor of the 90th birthday of our master, Bada Bhante-ji (= roughly: "Dear Father", the suffix "-ji" expresses a special reverence) to participate. Among other things, about 40 monks come from Sri Lanka, who will recite suttas (sutras = discourses of the Buddha) from the Sutta Pitaka or the Vinaya Pitaka of the huge, so-called "three basket") several times by heart and the local Theravadin monks Mahabodhi-Vihara will teach "correct rhythm and intonation". Of course, many guests and sponsors also come from Europe. I will tell you about this event again. Meanwhile, best regards, Christoph from son Sebastian from Darmstadt Hello Vadder, I've finally found time to read your emails. Very interesting! Most of all your theory that you should learn more by heart. In our world today, so much information is being transferred from your brain to electronic media. On the one hand, that's very good because you don't have to remember so much shit anymore. On the other hand, you also become very dependent on the machines and the system is increasingly building on this dependency. It is a self-reinforcing cycle. When I think about how many passwords and access codes I have. How are you supposed to remember all of this, especially since the passwords also have to have a certain complexity so that they are reasonably secure. &&& omit the following I looked at 2 potential tenants with Gertraut last weekend. We have chosen a couple (around 50 years old). Gertraut really managed to find new tenants for the apartment within a very short time without an advertisement. Respect! She can do it. My idea of ​​1030 cold rent was not a problem at all. You could easily have asked for 1050. Japan is a bad thing. I hope that the federal government will now get out of nuclear power sooner. In my opinion it is a huge opportunity for Germany as India StoriesCL_2011_v4.doc

17 important industrialized country to set a good example and to show the other countries that it can be done without nuclear power. This chancellor's policy of fearful rabbits is totally against the grain of me. On the other hand, I think it's good that Germany is not taking part in the bombing of Libya. We would be drawn into a conflict again. It cannot stay with the no-fly zone. In order to overthrow Gaddafi, ground troops would have to be deployed again. We should rather see that we do not support such dictatorships in advance and supply them with weapons. The parquet looks really great. I recommended a friend of mine to Gertraut who does it now and he does his job really well. Now that the living room is so empty, the great room comes into its own. You shouldn't put so much furniture in there anymore. Saskia has her exam and then she can join Dr. rant. &&& Ende I wish you a nice time in India and see you soon. Best regards, Sebastian to Sebastian dearest Sebastian, I think it's great that you write me a letter. Thank you for the detailed report. I thought about memorizing more for school and more for "cultural assets" (and by no means only for passwords and that kind of junk; there are other schemes for memorizing something like that or securing the memory of it; I have, for example a very specific scheme for my umpteen passwords; that is changed about every year). But if you have, for example, the most important German folk and church songs or let's say 50 poems by German poets in your head and you can reproduce them at any time, you have a "cultural asset" with you that only becomes such when you can quote it (!!!) It is not for nothing that the imams and mullahs let the Muslims learn the Quran (or at least a few relevant suras) by heart. The Theravada monks do the same with their three-basket (Tipitaka). This is cultural brainwashing and without such brainwashing you don't belong to a society: brainwashing is necessary !! Of course, this must not be done without reflection (otherwise dictatorships and terror regimes will arise). &&& omit the following Where did Gertraut get interested tenants from? (By the way: I didn't need any advertisements for the first rental either. Both first tenants, Biehan and Winetzhammer came through word of mouth or not even "propaganda", word got around that we would be renting out soon) Thanks also for your new rental price proposal of 1030EUR cold . That is about 30EUR more per month. In Bangalore we held a Karuna Puja for Japan in the monastery. The fact that people in Germany reacted so quickly by withdrawing the AK runtime extensions is nothing for me but a sign of fatal muddling and short-sightedness of the current government: Always just swimming with the mood of the day. And the nuclear lobby will not let up. You will see: when the dust has settled and the next elections should have another turn, the extension debate will start again! I think it is OK that Germany abstained from the actions against Gaddhafi Libya, because the Gaddhafi opponents have long been fed with weapons by England and the USA. The two western powers have long been aiming for an EXTERNAL-controlled violent overthrow of the unloved Gaddhafi regime. The process in Libya can in no way be compared with that in Tunisia and Egypt! In the case of Libya, the US and Europe action is an illegal (!!) intervention by foreign powers. That has nothing to do with whether the Gaddhafi regime is "fair / good / democratic / etc ..." in our sense, of course it is not! But: Which regimes have been supported by the USA and the former Western colonial powers in the last 50 years? AS GOOD AS NONE !!!! So: Germany is neither the stooge of the US-British pseudo world police nor the stooge of past colonial political interests. If we are scolded for this, we can only be proud of it! The Schröder decision against participating in the last dubious Iraq war was also correct. The fact that the federal government is promising 300 more ground troops for Afghanistan "as compensation" is a joke in history that destroys the whole correct attitude towards Libya. (Should the deployment of the 300 German ground troops make sense for purely Afghan reasons, then one could have waited 1 month before proclaiming it !!) &&& Ende Alles Liebe, Your Christoph IndiengeschichtenCL_2011_v4.doc

18 (7) Bangalore Dear friends, the nice, cool, fast express (absolute smoking ban as in Germany!) Did not work, so I squeezed into the fully packed normal train from Mysore to Bangalore in the blazing midday heat (takes about 130 km twice as long, 4 hours, but only costs around 40 Rp = 0.65 EUR). "Tshoi, tshoi !! ... Pacora; rooti, ​​rooti, ​​rooti !!" (tshoi = Indian milk tea; pacora = breaded; rooti = a kind of bread), that's the sound of the many food and drink vendors who squeeze in endless rows between the passengers and loudly offer their stuff in containers of dubious appearance.I soon got into conversation with a bunch of middle-aged housewives, "conversation" is saying too much, they all don't speak English, only Canada, the national language, but Indian shaking their heads (I've already described how that works) and a mixture of fragments from English / Hindi / Canada, supported by a particularly friendly smile and respectful hand gestures, made the conversation quite enjoyable for both sides: The ladies really thawed out during the 4 hours, were very cordial and offered me salty pepper cookies . There was no space in the monastery, all the beds were occupied by around 60 guest monks from Sri Lanka and various regions of northern and central India who had come for the 90th birthday of Bada Bhante, the "old man". The hotels near the monastery were all full and also much too expensive (outrageous room prices between the equivalent of 40 and 90 EUR per night, which the Germans, Swiss and Belgians who had come from Europe paid without hesitation because they did not dare to go after themselves looking for cheaper accommodation). But I had made up my mind not to spend more than 400 Rp (about 6.50 EUR) per night, that is the Indian standard "de luxe". After patiently penetrating the back alleys of the lively old town of Gandhinagar, I finally had success: 340 Rp / night = 5.40 EUR - Idli breakfast stand and internet bar just around the corner. "Idli" are very tasty rice cakes that you can serve with a spicy sauce eats for breakfast this is my personal breakfast here, an almost luxurious change from the frugal, dry rice plate in the monastery. Fortunately, I'm pretty insensitive to the infernal noise that rages around here until around midnight and from around 7am from hammering on construction sites, as well as vibrating water pipes and ancient air conditioning systems. If you walk through the empty streets of Bangalore's old town Ghandinagar early in the morning at 5 or 7 a.m., everything is swept clean by the servants of the lower boxes except for the inevitable piles of rubble and rubbish that pile up in front of every ruined house or every unused house entrance. The shops don't open here until 10am. But in the evening all the streets are staring with dirt. There are no rubbish bins, trash cans or rubbish bins here. Everything is thrown on the street. And it is collected at night by the patient low-boxed people (mostly women) with their bare hands (and a strange two broom). Where does that stuff go? Just to the outskirts. The outskirts of the city are kilometers of garbage dumps, interspersed with houses, gardens (also staring at dirt), footpaths in the garbage, populated by lean cows and dogs who enjoy the garbage. Only tens of kilometers outside a city like Bangalore do the densely planted fields begin to be a little less sparsely infested with rubbish. By the way: In Apulia, southern Italy, it was not any different in the 90s of the last century! - So please no European arrogance in this regard! Stories of IndiaCL_2011_v4.doc

19 F27: On the main festival day, March 19, the 90th birthday of the Great Acharya (= teacher), he gave a fiery speech with unbroken energy (luckily in the best English, so that one could easily follow) about the criminal neglect of the ancient Pâli -Language here in India, where Prakrit, Pâli and Sanskrit were the three most important ancient languages ​​of (Northern) India and Pâli was much more widespread (and perhaps even older) than Sanskrit, which was and is actually just the ritual and secret language of the Brahmin caste. It was wise of him not to restore his (existing) religious concern, namely to give Theravadin Buddhism a boost in India after many centuries of the disappearance of Theravadin all over India, but rather to put the concern in the foreground of his speech in the foreground of his speech To maintain the cultural assets of the Indian Pâli language better than before. Because many guests from the non-Buddhist Hindu culture were invited (and they also had their say afterwards) and they should not be offended with missionary Theravadin zeal! Q27: Bada Bhante (Bangalore) Bada Bhante is himself the greatest patron of the Pâli. He has translated countless texts of the Pâli canon, or even for the first time, into English and modern Indian languages, in particular his favorite work, the Dhammapada, i.e. a poetic part of the Suttapitaka (i.e. the basket of the Buddha's discourses in the three-basket = Tipitaka), which is very popular with the Theravādim. A few German translations of the Bada Bhante editions have also been published and are available from the Schirner bookstore in Darmstadt. He has compiled and re-translated an approx. 350 page "Mâhaparitta Pâli" "The Great Book of Protection" in Pâli / English, from various parts of the Pâli canon. (The "Mâhaparitta Pâli" has, however, been around for several centuries.) The entire Pâli part of it, approx. 150 book pages, was memorized by around 30 guest monks from Sri Lanka and in honor of Bada Bhante in a 9-hour "marathon night" recited ("chanted"). We lay followers (= Upasakâ / Upasikâ) could join in the chant. I made it through the 9 hours and recited loudly. Amazing effect: after about 50 pages, reading and chanting Pâli seemed as easy to me as if it were German or Spanish, of course, under the guidance of the slow, clear and very melodious voice-over by the SriLanka monks, even if I did not understand everything literally at the moment of chanting (but I had read the English translation of the book before). However, one knows the meaning of some Pâli keywords and thus roughly what such a pâli-recited sutta is about. At first it was more like a language-sporting endeavor. After about 4 hours, i.e. the remaining 5 hours of chanting, it turned into a strange kind of "meditation", because you are fully focused on the rhythm and melody of the Pali text, you are wide awake (no hint of tiredness ) and nothing else is around you than the melodious guidance of the chanting monks. Stories of IndiaCL_2011_v4.doc

However, my voice was totally in the bucket the next morning at 6:30 am, and I didn't recover from it until 3 days later. In other words, skillful voice training is definitely required if you recite Pâli texts for tens of hours without losing your voice. Well: the monks do almost nothing other than practice this day in and day out! So they can both learn by heart better and better manage their vocal power when reciting than we laypeople, who only go along with it every now and then. Q28: The monks of Mahabodhi Vihara in Bangalore Sophistic question: is this "sport" or is it "meditation"? Let's not be so pedantic: Almost every sport can be used as a kind of meditation if you concentrate accordingly and e.g. transcends the thoughts of "winning" or the fighting situation in sport and gives them a different background in themselves. This type of "transcending" during an active (sporting) activity is e.g. In Japan it has been practiced to perfection in Zen: It serves to transcend one's own "I-and-my-imagination" and the associated I-wishes / I-claims / I-aberrations. (However, it has also been misused for purely destructive purposes, e.g. in the training of the Japanese Kamikatse pilots in World War II.) However, it has been almost completely lost in the western sporting idea because "winning", "prestige of the national sports club" and finally the profit side is in the foreground. I wanted to steam off to Mysore again after the festival to finish my repair work there, because my offer, a couple of monks like Bhante Ananda (the most important monk and friend in the monastery) with the idea of ​​bookkeeping and the correct use of their computers support was only perceived intermittently. But on the last day there were two requests for support. And so I extended my stay in the monastery a little. It is not so easy to keep a monk involved during such a "private lesson", because other monks keep coming in, be it just for a "chat", be it for a more important matter, be it simply out of curiosity about something the strange westerner is there with the monk. Patience is the order of the day! You can't just say, "Get out of here! We have a meeting!" If you would let yourself be carried away, you would simply be "through" with them. You just have to wait until the monk client's interest has grown enough to get rid of his brother colleagues on his own. And: Agreements for the time of the next "lesson" are not adhered to in the "German sense"; it can take half a day until the monk client realizes that there was another meeting with Upasaka Khemarakkhita (that's me). An Upasaka (lay follower) has a different status than a monk; You just have to join the game (getting annoyed about non-compliance with deadlines would be completely wrong and completely nonsensical - it would simply be a relapse into an "I-and-my-claim"). Because the members of the Sangha (the Theravadic monastic community) feel closer to the Theravadin Buddhist goal of Nibbana (liberation) than they do to the Upasakas (laypeople). You just have to play this game as "Upasaka". I got used to it and I actually enjoyed it! "Theater in Theravadic" !! Stories of IndiaCL_2011_v4.doc

21 I am now back in Mysore with the extremely lively 4- to 10-year-old children from Ladakh, Arunachal Pradesh and other parts of India, who are thrown together here in the Mahabodhi home in the beautiful Saraswathipuram district of Mysore. Enjoy the spring that is coming up in Germany and be glad that it is not as hot as it is here. Best regards, Christoph von Gerhard from Bad Rappenau Hello Christoph, Thank you very much for the information, as always very exciting! Did you have any contact with Sai Baba in Bangalore? I'd be very interested in that. All the best, good luck, Gerhard to Gerhard hello Gerhard, no, Sathya Sai Baba is a completely different line. Never saw him (Gunther was once in Puttaparti, which is about 150km north of Bangalore). At the moment he is very sick and looks very old. In 1964 he claimed to be an incarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu, alias Krshna, alias Rama etc ...He was very active, got on well with those in power and founded universities and hospitals. This has been the norm in India for a long time: many social and educational institutions have emerged from private initiatives. This works particularly well if the initiator is religiously oriented or even venerated as a saint. Before the state supports or even takes over such institutions, they must have proven themselves for a while. It was similar with the social activities of our Theravada Buddhist Mahabodhi Vihara. The founder, Bada Bhante, was a Brahmin himself and got on well with the greats of politics. The state of Karnataka has now recognized its activities, and Mahabodhi / Bangalore is known and established, but lives largely from the donations from Europe. Best regards, Christoph from Angela from Mönchenglattbach Thank you, my dear Christoph! It's all really interesting, what you write and how you write it in this relaxed style! And again and again I think and I have to spontaneously tell you that you should publish a kind of "travel diary" or "travel s to my friends", maybe with a few photos. This will certainly interest many travelers and Buddhist fans. Anyway, I'm excited. I wish you a nice time there, come back safe and sound! All the best, Angela to Angela, Dear Angi, I am glad that you like my reports. To make a book out of it, a couple of friends had already recommended me in my "India Stories CL" from 2004 oh no! What comes out in book form is dead, and it has to be very good to survive for a while. I don't have the ambition. But we have internet: The India stories from 2004 are on my homepage. I will also post the current reports there. Good idea from you to illustrate the stories with a few photos! I still do that. Be hearted + pressed by your old admirer Christoph India StoriesCL_2011_v4.doc

22 (8) Maisuru (Mysore) Hello dear friends at home. Have been back in the tree-lined, affluent suburb of Saraswathipuram of Maisuru (Mysore) in the Mahabodhi home for a few days to finish some repairs. Q29: Before that, I went shopping in Bengaluru (Bangalore), plunged into the chaotic traffic and bought a few souvenirs. Q29: The hustle and bustle of traffic in front of a Rama temple (Vishnu family) in Bangalore Q30: I benefited from knowing a few verses from the Quran by heart. A lot of tuktuk drivers in Bangalore are Muslims; you can tell by the fact that they have no idols on the windshield. ("Tuktuk" are the small, yellow-painted, inexpensive three-wheeled taxi vehicles that populate the streets like ants by the thousands in all the cities of Karnataka.) So I waved a tuktuk driver over, saw that he was a Muslim, was wearing the F30: the Muslim tuktuk - Driver Ahmad India StoriesCL_2011_v4.doc

23 first Quranic surahs in good Arabic and: confidence was immediately established. I could get anything I wanted from him (and there was no need to haggle over the fare either). He drove me a bit through the city, past the sights (I've forgotten a lot since 2004) and then of course to Muslim-run shops that also had what I had in mind. Q31: The wonderful silk and woolen cloths are always popular among our friends as gifts. Many Indian cities are renamed over time: the former English colonial rulers did not bother with the correct pronunciation and set the city names as they could pronounce them. The English variants appear to the Indians as corruptions and gradually get their original names back. Q31: Hindu saleswoman in a cloth shop. So Bangalore is now called Bengaluru, Mysore is now called Maisuru. The renaming Benares -> Varanasi (in the state of Uttar Pradesh), Bombay -> Mumbai (in Maharashtra), Madras -> Chennai (in the state of Tamil Nadu), Calcutta -> Kalighat (in West Bengal) have been in the for a long time Use. A lot has changed in India since I was last here in 2004: The total population from then about 1 billion has grown to 1.2 billion (i.e. 200 million = 2.5 x more Germans! 1 Germans are now 15 Indians). But the rate of growth has fallen: Many better-off families now only have 1-2 children and that without any pressure from above as in China, but with a lot of persuasion through appropriate propaganda of family policy. This is astonishing to us, because in India there is no social and old-age security system like in Germany, i.e. the poorer are still dependent on their offspring to provide for them in old age. Because of the preference for male offspring, partly Also due to the high wedding expenses of the parents when a daughter is married (too many daughters make a poorer family bankrupt!) there is an imbalance in the gender distribution, and this has worsened in recent years: there are 620 million male Indians only 580 million Indian women, so to speak: half of Germany too few women! The literacy rate has improved significantly; it is highest in Kerala with 94%, whereas Karnataka is only average; Fortunately, however, there is an above-average increase in the poorest state of Bihar. On average in India, the literacy rate is around 74% (for children over 7 years of age + adults); Back then, in 2004, people spoke of only 65%. It is remarkable that the literacy rate has risen faster among girls than among boys. (Source: "The Times of India", which I read sometimes.) India StoriesCL_2011_v4.doc

24 By the way: Hindi (a language that is spoken in the North Indian states with dialect deviations, related to the old Pâli and Sanskrit, with interspersed Turkic languages), seems to be gaining more acceptance as the national language, at least in business life, e.g. towards the Telugu languages ​​in the south with the exception of the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu; it still behaves like its own "kingdom", one can call it the "Bavaria of India". In the 1960s, people laughed at the Congress party's request to introduce a uniform Indian language (instead of English) throughout India. Similar to Ethiopia, there are (with dialect differences) in India well over a hundred languages ​​and each country has its own script! In addition to these local scripts (almost all of which originated from the ancient Brahmi script that Emperor Ashoka, 3rd century BC, put into circulation), Latinizations are also increasingly being seen in writing in business life. The great old man, Acharya Buddharakkhita, Bada Bhante, senior director of the Mahabodhi monastery, who recently celebrated his 90th birthday, insisted from the start that his monks and children in the Mahabodhi homes should be the first to learn Hindi, second, of course, the monks: the ancient religious language of Pâli. That was and is indispensable, because his pupils, more than half of whom come from the underdeveloped Arunachal Pradesh and from Ladakh, speak a total of around 20 different languages ​​when they come to the monastery or one of the homes! It is particularly diverse in Arunachal Pradesh, where each clan speaks a different language. I have no idea how it works, but there is non-stop play in the school yard, behind the stupa, even in the hallways of the home, with small hard balls and clubs that the boys made from broken palm stalks: CRICKET! Q32: 3 days ago Saraswathipuram was extinct, almost all shops closed. So I didn't get the screws I needed and asked people what the holiday was. Not a holiday! Cricket World Cup, today the semifinals between India and Pakistan! Back in the home: silence; now and then interrupted by the collective outcry from a hundred small throats. They sat, almost all "stacked", in front of the home TV and watched the game, which was taking place somewhere in northern India (in Mahali / Gujarat). Even the Buddhist evening puja was postponed. Q32: Mahabodhi-Home: Cricket on TV India has won! But more importantly: the game gave the politicians of India and Pakistan another positive opportunity to get into conversation. There was of course no solution to the Kashmir problem, but there was a sense of relief on both sides that they were talking to each other again at all. Yesterday the cricket final in Mumbai: India versus (traditionally friends) Sri Lanka. Another 4 hours of continuous voltage in the entire home on TV and closed shops in the city. (I only watched every now and then because I didn't understand the game and went to paint by the lake.) India is now the world chricket champion! And the winning team is showered with gifts from all Indian states. Karnataka gave each of the players a flat rate in the upscale suburb of Bengaluru (embarrassing: 2 days later this gift commitment was withdrawn by the finance minister Karnatakas and converted into a somewhat more modest monetary gift!). The large open-air screens of the so-called "public India stories CL_2011_v4.doc" are missing here

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