What was the first Muslim emperor

Islam

Karl-Heinz Ohlig

To person

Dr. theol., born 1938; 1978 to 2006 Professor of Religious Studies and the History of Christianity at Saarland University (Philosophical Faculty); Currently head of the religious studies department at the Philosophical Faculty of Saarland University and of "Inara. Institute for Research into the Early History of Islam and the Koran", Postfach 15 11 50, 66041 Saarbr├╝cken.
Email: [email protected]

The article offers a brief summary of the latest research on the history of Islam.

introduction

Islam is a dynamically growing world religion with more than a billion members. It sees itself justified by the prophet Mohammed (muhammad) sent by God, who according to tradition lived on the Arabian Peninsula from around 570 to 632 AD. A military and religious success story began after his death. The expansions of the Muslim warriors overcame the two great powers in this area, the Byzantine and Sassanid (Persian) empires. In a few decades they extended their rule in the whole of the Middle East to the borders of India, conquered Egypt and North Africa as far as Spain and advanced as far as southern France.






These operations were directed by caliphs who succeeded Mohammed in his political leadership: first, up to the year 661 AD, the - later so-called - four "rightly guided caliphs", then, up to 750, the Umayyads, who followed the capital Damascus moved and, from the middle of the 8th century, the Abbasids, who ruled from Baghdad.

Mohammed only made his proclamations orally. These were kept in mind by his listeners, but were also recorded on bones or palm leaves. According to Muslim tradition, this material was collected under the third caliph Osman (Othman, Uthman) and was made into today's full text of the by a commission headed by Zaid ibn Thabit in the years 650 to 656, i.e. 18 to 24 years after the death of Muhammad Quran has been compiled. The Caliph Osman had all other versions of the Koran forbidden. The Koran (Kairiner Koran) printed in Cairo in 1925, which today is the basis of all Koran exegesis, is said to agree with the Koran of Osman.

Western research on the Koran has largely followed the Muslim tradition to this day. Hans Zirker sums up this consensus: "Compared to the Bible (...) the Qur'an has an extremely short and homogeneous creation time. (...) About 20 years after the death of Muhammad, the collection was available, from which all current editions With a few exceptions, even non-Muslim scholars have no doubt that the Koran reproduces the words of Revelation largely authentically in the form conveyed by Mohammed (...). "[1] Rudi Paret also says:" We have no reason to assume that even a single verse in the whole Koran would not come from Mohammed himself. "