What was the haplogroup of the Hittites



DNA research

Maternal-Grandfather Result, Rodolfo Berti

R 1b1a2a1a1a3a1a– M-269, U106 (Subglade R-S26 (L-1))

R1b-S26 => 72% R1b-E. Europe => 15% R1b => 5% R1b-Ub => 5% R1b-C. Europe => 3%

Result Paternal Line, Volker Wagner

R 1b1a2a1a1a3b2 - M269, U106, S162 (Subglade R-S21 (L-48))

R1b1b2a1a1d (after 23andme)

R1b-Frisian3 => 38% R1b-S21 * => 31% R1b-Frisian => 31%

 

Typical European gentype, particularly widespread among residents of the British Isles, the Benelux countries and Germany, but also in western France, Portugal and Galicia. As a subgroup R 1b1a2 hardly any (Asia, America, Middle East) or no (Africa) distribution outside Europe. The group R1b is mainly associated with the Indo-Europeans. It is also often referred to as the 'Celtic DNA', as it is most widespread among peoples with a Celtic background, whereas the subgroup U106 mainly represents a part of the Germanic tribes. More correct, however, is a connection with the Stone Age megalithic culture of the Atlantic coast, whose ancestors immigrated around 8000 years ago. The relatives of U106 probably lived in the so-called Doggerland, which was flooded by the North Sea in several phases during the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. Therefore, the distribution of these people is to be found primarily along the German North Sea coast, and in fact the family tree leads here, to Dithmarschen to be precise. A Frisian origin of my ancestors can be assumed here.


origin

It is believed that the haplogroup R between the Caspian Sea and Siberia first appeared 30,000 to 35,000 years ago. Interestingly, the rather rare forms of the chromosomes of haplogroup R, as well as the most common cases of the closely related haplogroup Q, are found among populations in Central Asia, South Asia, Australia, Siberia, Native Americans, Egypt and Cameroon. It is the most common haplogroup in Europe.

Some researchers like Kivisild et al. Suggest that South and West Asia could be the origin of this haplogroup ": Based on the geographical distribution and the STR differences of the sister groups R1 and R2 (the latter is limited to India, Pakistan, Iran and southern Central Asia) it is possible that South and West Asia are the source for the delimitation of R1 and R2.


distribution

The majority of carriers of haplogroup R belong to haplogroup R1, which is differentiated by marker M173. R1 is very common in Europe and Western Eurasia. Its spread is believed to be related to the repopulation of northern Eurasia after the last ice age. Its main subgroups are R1a (SRY1532) and R1b (M343). An isolated strain of the Y chromosomes, which appear to belong to haplogroup R1b1 * (P25), was found in high concentration among the indigenous population of northern Cameroon in west-central Africa. It is believed that this represented a prehistoric return migration of an ancient Proto-Eurasian population to Africa. Some researchers have also reported low levels of haplogroup T Y chromosomes in some of these Cameroonian populations that share a Eurasian resemblance. Some Y chromosomes, which appear to be closely related to the Cameroonian R1b1 * chromosomes, are found in high concentration among the modern population in Egypt. Many modern populations of North Cameroon speak Chadian languages, which are classified as an ancient branch of the Afro-Asian language family. The now extinct language of the ancient Egyptians also belonged to the same language family. People whose Y chromosomes all have mutations at the internal zero points of the Y-DNA tree including M207 (defines haplogroup R), but neither have the mutation M173 (defines haplogroup R1) nor the mutation M124 (defines haplogroup R2) Attributed to haplogroup R *. Some cases of haplogroup R * have been found in Australian Aboriginal specimens. Haplogroup R * was also detected in 10.3% of a sample from Burusho and 6.8% of a sample from Kalash in northern Pakistan.


Origin R1b

The Y-haplogroup R1b is a branch of R1 (M173), and is differentiated by the M343 marker. The R1b strain appears to have a much higher degree of internal diversity than R1a, suggesting that mutation M343, which separates R1b from R1 *, must have appeared considerably earlier than mutation SRY1532, which distinguishes R1a. The Genographic Project assumes that R1b originated on the Iberian Peninsula as a refuge from the last Ice Age, from where the genes then spread again. In the meantime, however, this thesis is increasingly being refrained from, as the variance (e.g. according to Barbara Arredi and colleagues) is much higher in Eurasia and continuously decreases towards Western Europe, although the amount of SNP increases at the same time. This suggests that the Iberian population is much younger. The supposedly old Basque R1b population is no exception. It is now increasingly assumed that Western Europeans are by no means older than 10,000 years and that before this time they lived either in the Maghreb or in the Middle East. The thesis was expressed by African scientists that the Western Europeans stayed in the then still fertile Sahara and immigrated to southern Europe through the drying up of the Sahara via the Mediterranean Sea. This is supported by subgroup V88, which is clearly associated with the spread of the Chadic languages ​​(including ancient Egyptian). At least in the new kingdom of Egypt, R1b was present there. Russian scientists, on the other hand, are of the opinion that R1b spread from the Altai and originally used a Turkic language. They exclude R1b as a carrier of the Indo-European original language. However, this thesis contradicts the existence of ancient R * and R1 * in Eastern Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan and India, albeit in small quantities, which shows a commonality between R1b and Indo-Europeans. The question of how exactly R1b ​​came to Europe is therefore still unresolved.

The haplogroup R1b1a2 sat around 9,500 years ago in the region around the Black Sea. The immigration of this group to Europe took place at the earliest with the spread of agriculture from 7,000 B.C.E., most likely there is also a strong connection with the Indo-Europeans, who only spread to Europe a little later in several waves. In Egypt, this group now accounts for less than 1% and is certainly partly due to European immigration in the Bronze Age.


Today's distribution

In Europe, R1b (with the subgroups R1b1 and R1b3, formerly named Hg1 and Eu18) is the most common Y haplogroup. The concentration reaches 98% in parts of northwest Ireland; in north and west England, Spain, Portugal and Ireland up to 90% and in south-east England and the Netherlands around 70%. In addition, R1b is represented in some parts of Algeria with around 10%.


Famous relatives

A well-known member of this DNA group R1b1a2 is the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun. Tutankhamun was the last pharaoh of the 18th dynasty and ruled from 1332 to 1323 B.C.E. His paternal line begins with Pharaoh Thutmose I who ruled from around 1504-1492 B.C.E. Its paternal origin is unknown, so it is currently unclear how this line came to Egypt from the area of ​​origin. Possibly his father was a Hittite, an Indo-European group which is often associated with Germanic tribes and who founded a powerful empire in Asia Minor in ancient times. From the reign of Akhenaten or Tutankhamun, a letter from an Egyptian queen has come down to us from the Hittite archives. In this letter she asks the king of the Hittites to have one of his sons as the new Pharaoh, since her husband is dead and she has no son. The haplogroup R1b1a2 was certainly widespread in the Hittite Empire in Asia Minor. (My gene code corresponds to Tutankhamun with 16 submarkers to 50%, on 5 markers there is a deviation of 1 value, on three markers of two values. The common ancestor probably lived here approx. 4000-6000 years ago.)


Distribution of subclades R1

R1 (M173) stands for the origin in Central Asia

R1 (L62) stands for a population that lives in the foothills of the Anatolian-Iranian mountains

R1 (L62 *) very small minority in the Anatolian-Iranian mountainous country

R1 (L120) most prominent subgroup within L62

R1 (L120 *) a small minority of distantly related lines in Anatolia and the Caucasus

R1 (M17) stands for the most important part (95%) in the L62 group

R1 (L417) stands for 90% of L62, as a subgroup of M17

R1 (Z645) preferably stands for Balto-Slavs in Europe and Indo-Iranians in Asia

R1 (Z283) almost exclusively in Europe, especially with the Baltic and Slavic population

R1 (M458) stands for a clear Balto-Slavic descent

R1 (L260) stands for a largely West Slavonic group

R1 (Z280) stands for Balto-Slavic descent, which is strong with (M458) in Poland

R1 (L365) is found mainly in Poland

R1 (Z284) originated in Norway, distributed by the Vikings

R1 (Z93) plays a leading role in the spread of the Indo-Iranian languages

R1 (M434) mainly in Pakistan

R1 (L664) represents a Neolithic expansion into the German lowland regions

R1 (M343) western clade of R1 (M173), with a proportion of Asian origin (L62) and stands for its western extension

R1 (P25) 5000 year old mutation restricting M343 R1b to a single line

R1 (P297) most successful line in R1b, possibly originated in the northern Caspian region

R1 (M73) today as a minority in Central Asia, among the Turkic tribes and the Pakistani Hazara

R1 (M269) dominant population, established during the Mesolithic in what is now Ukraine

R1 (L23) for a group that crossed the Pontic steppe in Europe in the Neolithic Age

R1 (L150) group that reached the mouth of the Danube, a mixed population of Neolithic farmers and Paleolithic Europids

R1 (L51) R1b penetrated deep into Europe in the Neolithic

R1 (P310) stands for R1 (M173) and the conquest of the European heartland around 2500 BC. By Eurasian groups

R1 (U106) separates from the main group (P310) and absorbs Europide during their occurrence in Germany in the Paleolithic

R1 (Z18) westernmost subgroup of U106, is considered to be the origin of the Germanic peoples

R1 (Z381) most important subgroup of U106, is also considered to be the origin of the Germanic peoples

R1 (M467) Anglo-Saxon marker in the British Isles and Northern Germany

R1 (L1) West Germanic marker in the British Isles and Western Europe

R1 (L48) Germanic marker in the British Isles

R1 (P312) shows primarily Indo-European population since the Bronze Age Europe, especially Celts

R1 (M65) stands for Ibero-Celtic descent.

R1 (Z196) Most important Ibero-Celtic descent influenced the Nordic Bronze Age

R1 (M153) Also of Ibero-Celtic descent, also found among Basques

R1 (L176.2) Iberian population, took part in the Nordic Bronze Age

R1 (M167) sizeable minority among Catalonians and Basques

R1 (L165) stands for an Ibero-Celtic expansion into Scandinavia during the Nordic Bronze Age

R1 (U152) Gallic-Celtic descent, direction Italy

R1 (L21) British-Celtic ancestry, predominant in the British Isles

R1 (M37) small line with Celtic roots

R1 (M222) Celtic Line in Ireland

R1 (L513) Pan-British Celtic Line

R1 (L96) Celtic ancestry that may have originated in northwestern France

R1 (L144) Celtic ancestry in Ireland

R1 (L159.2) Celtic-British line, was linguistically subjugated by the Anglo-Saxons

R1 (Z253) of Celtic descent in Ireland

R1 (DF21) Pan-British Celtic ancestry

R1 (L371) Celtic ancestry in Wales

R1 (L238) North Celtic descent, played role in the Nordic Bronze Age

R1 (DF19) German-Celtic descent, shares the same habitat with the Germanic (U106)

R1 (L584) Anatolian branch found among Armenians, Assyrians, and other Anatolian populations

R1 (M335) rare, remains of a line from the Paleolithic in Anatolia

R1 (V88) this mutation defines all R1b lines that had an R1b ancestor in Africa

R1 (V88 *) Cluster is in Northern Cameroon

R1 (M18) This population migrated from sub-Saharan Africa to the Levant, and came to Sardinia with the Phoenicians

R1 (V69) in the Neolithic behind the V88, most common in North Cameroon

Distribution R1b in Europe

R1b in Central Europe

Origin R1b (blue) or R1b-1a2 (carmine) according to the Megalitherbauer theory

Origin and distribution of R1b / R1b1a2 according to the Indo-European theory

Spreading your own subglade