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Trier studies on literature


1 Studies on literature in Trier With the collaboration of Rüdiger Ahrens, Karl-Heinz Bender, Wolfgang Düsing, Karl Eibl, Herbert Zirker Edited by JÖRG HASLER, BERNHARD KÖNIG, LOTHAR PIKULIK vol. 1 PETER LANG Frankfurt am Main Bern Las Vegas

2 Christoph Gerhardt The Metamorphoses of the Pelican Examples and Interpretation in Medieval Literature With examples from the visual arts and a picture attachment PETER LANG Frankfurt am Main Bern Las Vegas

3 ClP short title recording of the German library Gerhardt, Christoph The metamorphoses of the pelican: examples and interpretation in medieval. Literature; with examples from d. fine arts etc. Attach. / Christoph Gerhardt. - Frankfurt am Main, Bern, Las Vegas: Lang, (Trier Studies on Literature; Vol. 1) ISBN ISBN Verlag Peter Lang GmbH, Frankfurt am Main 1979 All rights reserved. Reprinting or duplication, even in part, in all forms such as microfilm, xerography, microfiche, microcard, offset is prohibited. Printing: Fotokop Wilhelm Weihert KG, Darmstadt Cover set: Fotosatz Aragall GmbH, Wolfsgangstraße 92, Frankfurt am Main

4 TABLE OF CONTENTS I Introduction and topic: Examples and interpretation 7 II The metamorphoses of the pelican: 1. The Physiologus The scandal of the boys killed out of anger The snake in the pelican's nest "Fertur, si verum sit, pelicanus ..." The pelican on the Cross The wonderful revival of the old pelican The pelican on the dry tree The pelican and scenes of the vita Christi The reduction stage: the self-sacrificing pelican Reinterpretations of the self-sacrifice: a) 'Pelicanus sanguine lactans' 30 b) The pelican boy in the egg Pelican and little owl - Pelican and Christ in the wine press "Mors pellicani, passio xpicti" Frauenlobs Vogel 'Vellica' alias 'fenix' alias 'pelicanus' alias 'volita' 44 III Outlook: The pelican frontal and in profile 51 Notes 55 Appendices: I On the concept of the nature type 113 II The pelican on the cross 116 III The number of boys in the pelican nest 128 IV Four master songs from the Kolmar song manuscript in which the pelican appears 164 V Johannes Sinapio, Ornithica Sacra, excerpt 172 Photo credits 177 Register 179 Illustrations 199


6 The Pelican A wonderful bird is the pelican, His bill will hold tnore than his belican. He can take in his beak Enough food for a week, But I 'm darned if I know how the helican. Dixon Meritt () I INTRODUCTION AND SUBJECT MATTERS: EXEMPLES AND INTERPRETATION One of the few works of the Middle Ages that has found a certain distribution through cheap paperback editions are the 'Gesta Romanorurn' 1 - "Stories of the Romans. A Storybook of the Middle Ages" 2, as the subtitle is called in the latest translation. Old, handwritten titles, however, read among others: "Gesta imperatorum moralizata, Romana historia mistice interpreta" 3, "Gesta Romanorum secundum ordinem cum reductionibus_ spiritualibus" 4, or even more clearly: "Misticacio quedam, multum quidem dulcis et deuota et moralizans, sed ex dictis magis confictis et poeticis quam historiacis et in veritate gestis "5. Already in the medieval and the modern title a fundamental difference in the understanding of this specimen collection becomes clear, which can essentially be extended to the entire example literature:" This work should be an auxiliary book to be a preacher; for us, who look back at literary history, it is an early collection of sermon tales 116, says Seemann quite impartially about a parallel case, about Hugos von Trimberg's 'Solsequium' 7. This modern understanding and the associated revaluation the example literature largely determined the editorial Practice. In Dick's somewhat critical edition of the 'Gesta Romanorum', the 'moralisationes' or 'reductiones' are missing, as is the case in most New High German translations, "because they do not have a literary historical value", as Dick tries to justify his approach 8. However, "the fact that well-known stories in the manuscripts are often only hinted at with the opening words and that moralization takes up all the space" 9 should make people sit up and take notice, as well as the fact that an example can possibly get three 'reductiones' lo. So if one wants to do justice to the intellectual historical position of this collection and others comparable, one should not only turn to the inventory of examples, but 7

7 must also include the interpretations in the investigation and must not neglect the relationship between example and interpretation, as is almost always the case in modern example and motive research 11. It should not be concealed that even in the outgoing one Middle Ages the 'moralisationes' were shortened or occasionally dropped out entirely ^, but this secondary development should not serve as an excuse for today's disinterest in the 'edifying appendices'. Because today we have shifted the emphasis from the interpretation to the narrative parts, i.e. ignoring the intention of the authors, we are blocking the crucial access to an understanding of the examples that the authors expected and to a deeper insight into the medieval reception of examples , because our reaction to the texts almost automatically takes a different path. When I speak of 'example' here and in the following, I do not understand it to be a genre of its own, but rather a short narrative that illustrates a doctrine, which is only a "form of preservation and transport for substances, the content of which is legends, miracles, animal fables etc. are to be classified ". Similar to the 'bispel', the example is more "the principle of an epic-didactic presentation, with the epic part having the role of presenting illustration material" *. When the 'example' only means the narrative part and when the narrative and interpretative part are meant together, should be clear from the context. A second example from the 'Gesta Romanorum' should make it clear that the emphasis for medieval authors and recipients (writers, listeners, readers) was actually on the interpretation part of the example. Today, in the special case of the 'Gesta Romanorum', we have names and subject registers, generally a motif index or an index Exemplorum in which the narrative material is listed alphabetically by name and subject. E.g. in cap. 23 (edited by W. Dick) tells the story of how Alexander the Great victoriously brings the siege of a city, which is prevented by a basilisk sitting on the wall, to an end by killing the basilisk through a mirror held up in front of him. In the manuscripts it is usually headed "de basilisco et speculo" and recorded accordingly in the literature * ^. in Oesterley's edition cap, however, the heading is "de vulneribus anime", and in manuscripts there are still: "de superbia", "contra superbiam" and "de humilitate" *. Here, then, the interpretation provides the key word in the title. Given a so-called juxtaposition, it is not surprising that not only a "tabula de Gestis Romanorum" has been preserved - according to our registers - but there is also such a "tabula" of the "reductionum", comparable to the medieval allegorical dictionaries 1; but these have no counterpart in modern example research, and this gap is entirely symptomatic. 8th

8 This individual case refers to the general phenomenon that the examples in the Middle Ages are usually not told on their own, but mostly in a context that is related to the interpretations of the individual examples. This framework can, to name a few possibilities, be a didactic-edifying allegory like in the 'chess books'; a mystical allegory as in the Cistercian work of the 'Holy Rule for a Perfect Life', in which Mary's individual parts of the body and her spirit are related to the virtues; the ten commandments as in the 'Great Comfort of Soul' or juxtapositions of virtue and vice as in the 'Etymachietraktat' 18. Another complex of monuments, the Physiologus, serve as an example for the following investigation. According to medieval practice and theory, the example figure 'Pelican' selected from this belonged to the inventory of examples that was recommended and also used for sermons ^ s. On the basis of this 'bispel' - this is the most important Middle High German term 20 - I do not want to pursue the question of how such a 'bispel' can be interpreted analogically or typologically according to the fourfold sense of writing, as usual, but I want the question to refer to the Turn upside down. I want from the history of the development of the example - i. This means that I can largely disregard questions of the detailed chronology - treat a smaller excerpt and show how the 'bispel' is influenced by the interpretation: be it that it is changed or expanded in details of the 'plot', be it that 'proprietates' ('property') originating elsewhere are transferred and included, be it finally that completely new 'examples' are designed and invented from the point of view of interpretation 2 ^; for as a rule the principle applies: "The medieval poet evidently saw his artistic task in the invention of completely new pictures, but in the modification, redesign and extension of adopted pictures" 22 also serve as a contribution to the clarification of the repeatedly raised problem, "which freedoms in connection with a source remained to the medieval writer in a time that was bound by authority and was also open to interpretation and interpretation" 24, 9


10 II THE METAMORPHOSES OF THE PELICAN: 1. The Physiologus The Physiologus, next to the Bible probably the most widespread book of early and medieval Christianity, is mainly an animal book that was probably created in Alexandria in the second century. But it is not a zoology book. Rather, nature interprets it "from the thinking of the significations. One or more properties or behaviors of an animal are described in each case, usually in connection with a passage from the Bible, which are then interpreted, also using biblical quotations, step by step and punctually 2. Just as the narrative text offers isolated features, the interpretation also remains isolated and it does not even need to take up all parts of the narrative text.The natural history level of description and the level of religious interpretation are related by the exegete - one could say arbitrarily without wanting to evaluate negatively - as he was used to from the biblical interpretation. Its task is to expose the meaningful references hidden in reality - in the book of nature 2 "- and thus to make them even more recognizable, or in Gregory the Great's words:" per visibilia invisibilia demonstrare ". To call the Physiologus "one of the most narrow-minded books in world literature" 22 is not only completely absurd, but also shows how strange this way of thinking and dealing with texts has become to us historically, not typologically thinking 22a, gjg wj r are more used to the anthropomorphic depictions of animals in fables and other animal poems of the 'Reinecke Fuchs' type 2 ^. One of the most effective representations of the Physiologus is that of the pelican, since from the start it has an almost dramatic-narrative intrinsic value beyond its symbolic character, which far surpasses the allegorical imagery, which is often purely mentally constructed. It cannot be traced back directly to ancient sources 2 "; after all, the pelican was used as a sacrificial animal in the Roman city of Trier 2 !. It says there 22: The blessed prophet David says in his psalter: I am like a pelican in the desert. The Physiologus said of the pelican that he was completely absorbed in his love for his children. When he has produced the young, they peck their parents in the face as soon as they gain weight. The parents, however, chop back and kill them But they are sorry. For three days they mourn the children they killed. After the third day, however, their mother goes and tears her flank open and her blood drips on 11

11 take the dead bodies of the boys and raise them up. This is what our Lord says in the book of the prophet Isaiah: I raised and exalted children, and they fell away from me. Master brought us up and we beat him. We have served creation against the Creator. But he came to the exaltation of the cross, and from its open side dripped blood and water, for salvation and life: the blood because it was said: He took the cup and gave thanks; but the water for baptism is for repentance. 33 According to the setting of the disciple in Marquards von Lindau 'Eucharist tract': "I promise the miracle, but I would like to have a balance that I understand it dester bas", 34 should be central points of Christian teaching, the sacrificial death of Christ on the cross and the Eucharist, vivid, memorable and also easily comprehensible and noticeable for 'illitterati' ^ on the basis of a "type from nature, which has similar evidential value as the Old Testament types; according to the schema of typological interpretation, the" two temporal and causal wide connects distant events, tears each of them out of the context in which it happened, and connects them through a common sense. "38 How much the biblical bird pelican was seen as part of the Old Testament is made clear by Petrus Damiani, the writes about the pelican report: "Quae nimirum res non tarn figura, quam evangelica videtur historia" The example of the pelican was extraordinarily effective, especially in religious literature and art, and was essentially limited to this area, albeit only since the Gothic period, 3'a in which its use in the theological interpretation of scriptures was already evident It seems to be drawing to a close, 38 in which theology also endeavors to depict theologically difficult content in the form of images. The pelican example penetrated natural history and encyclopedias and served as an example of self-sacrificing love39 also in the secular realm; 48 let us recall Laertes' answer to the king: "I want to open my arms wide to my friends, And like the sacrificial pelican to water them with my blood" ('Hamlet', IV, 5). The pelican, in keeping with the general expansion tendencies of medieval allegory in the Baroque era, was seen as a symbol of a conscientious government 44, Gustav Adolf has been compared to him 43, and from the 15th century he served as a printer's ignet 4 3 and heraldic animal 44 Pelikan Entrance into the alchemical arcane and technical language as well as the world of images, 48 ​​he embodied the scholastic and alchemical principle in equal measure: "corruptio unius est generatio alterius" 48, and it was used in rhetoric as an illustration material for the use of metaphors "4 ?. in a detailed and in 'La nuit de mai' (1835), Alfred de Musset lets the muse of the poet, vocation, position in society and with the public, in short, compare the essence of the poet with the pelican father; Goethe had 48 before him in a conversation with Eckermann (Friday, January 2, 1824) the pelican to a poetological 12

12 see self-statement drawn in: "The conversation turned to the 'Werther.' 'That is also such a creature,' said Goethe, 'which, like the pelican, I have fed the blood of my own heart. There is so much inwardness in it from my own breast, so much of feelings and thoughts to furnish a novel of ten such volumes' ". The pelican ekes out a rather modest existence today as a company logo that goes back to a former family coat of arms, on writing utensils ^ S - a huge decline if you consider that Maximilian I, according to legend, was a tame pelican, in whose honor Maximilian's father was already had built a castle, adopted it and paid him a pension for 46 years ^. Today's revolutionaries are unlikely to have much understanding for Heinrich Heine's "stylistic piquancy", who said of the Paris July Revolution of 1831: "Old pelicans of freedom fell into bayonets and fed the enthusiasm of the young with their blood." ^ Gerard Blain still expects viewers of his film 'The Pelican' (1973) to relate the story of a father fighting for the affection of his son to the title, comparable to August Strindberg in his Kammerspiel 'Pelikanen' (1907) with the title cipher summarizes the content of the piece with specific accentuation, but also steers the audience's understanding into a specific direction of interpretation. This proteus nature of the pelican in allegory, comparison, metaphor or symbol, i.e. the ability to adapt to the most varied of interpretations, to adopt the most varied of contents, is what the bird certainly owes its vitality, its life, that of the phoenix, who - * sits venia verbo '- must renew ex officio every 500 (or 100, 300, 330, 340, 540, 660, 1000, 1400) years, comes almost the same. 2. The scandal of the boys killed out of anger A characteristic and striking feature of the Physiologus report is that the disobedience of man and the anger of God, which led to the expulsion from Paradise - to use terms of the level of interpretation - not of the interpretation are grasped and are therefore not protected by it and anchored in it. These two components of the pelican report are therefore particularly easily exposed to a replacement by a less scandalizing motif: the parental one. Anger is replaced by too vehement, physical parental love. So it says in Werner's 'Libri deflorationum': "Haec avis pullos suos, dum illos charitus tractare cupit, 13

13 rostro perimit ";" ^ Honorius Augustodunensis has something different to report in the 'Speculum ecclesiae': "Fertur etiam quod pellicanus in tantum pullos suos diligat, ut eos unguibus interimat ... 5 the anonymous author of a 'Lower Rhine report on the Orient' claims that "eyn pellicanus ... hait syjje jongen altze ran, so dat he die van groisser randen zoryst ind sy doit"; and in his parody of Tannenhauser's song X, Boppe complains that his little lady demands all sorts of impossible things from him, including: "How pellikânus síniu kint erkrimme before love tôt: Happened ir daz because of mines, you see, sô host lied me a morning blessing". 57 However, it seems to me, with the replacement of the scandalon by the somewhat sentimental streak of the tragic Consequences of excessive parental love also humanized and belittled a considerable part of the theological statement and the radical consequence of the pelican temple, because that the cause and justification of the change in Cant . 4, 9 "vulnerasti cor meum soror mea sponsa vulnerasti cor meum" could be a retrograde thought of wounding, even killing love, is probably not so likely, although it is of no small importance in the exegesis of high songs. 58 On the other hand, the learned and educated Alexander Neckam elegantly resolves the offense in a literary way, so to speak. He took the sting out of the conclusion threatening one's own existence, which the killing of one's own children by the mother entails, by placing the pelican in a literary context and presenting it as "Medeae nimis expressa imiatrix", ^ 9 resp . that he says, almost playfully, the pelican "Medea videri appétit". 69 by classifying the pelican in a literary series of examples beginning in ancient mythology, the statement of the example is deprived of its existential sharpness. With a deeper insight into the statement of the Physiologus report, Augustine starts exactly at this point, the idea of ​​an angry, punishing, but also loving God: "Habet haec avis [sc. Pelikan] magnam similitudinem carnis Christi, cuius sanguine vivificati sumus. Sed quomodo congruat, quod ipsa occidit filios suos? An et illi non congruit, ego occidam et ego vivificabo, ego percutiam et ego sanabo "(Deut. 32, 39). 61 Augustine shows that special efforts were required to prepare and make comprehensible this part of the report for the edification of pious minds, which other writers have modified or simply left out in order to avoid the difficulty. "2 3. The snake in the pelican nest Against this background, a change in the pelican temple, which has often been stated but has not yet been explained, is easier to understand

14 namely, the killing of the young by the parents is replaced by the variant that the snake, which lives in enmity with the pelican, kills its young. The motif comes from the secondary material of the Greek Physiologus and has entered the Latin tradition in ways that are no longer recognizable.^ This version has become more and more popular in German literature and in the late Middle Ages, especially through its inclusion in the Dominican and Franciscan encyclopedias of the 13th century, it seems to have become equivalent to, even superior, to the old version. Its decisive advantage is that it can be more easily interpreted according to the current scheme of seduction of man by the "old serpent" (Apoc. 20, 2), the devil, especially when this idea is combined with the extraordinarily widespread type of the brazen serpent, who, according to Joh. 3, 14, prefigures the crucified Christ ^ and the serpent of paradise that coils around the tree of knowledge: ^ Got is ok liked deme pellicanus. Dat ys eyn vogel, de gift synen young sin egene blot, vnde dar mede maket he se leuendich, wan se de slange gedodet heft. So dede god bij vns, do vns de slange gedodet hadde in paradise. Do makede he vns wedder leuendich myt syneme duren stupid. Perhaps this is the transmission of one of the characteristics of the eagle whose young the snake is chasing after. But also in general the fight between bird and snake offers a common plot and a narrative framework for this change, which could have been facilitated by another point. In the more recent encyclopedias a distinction is made between two types of pelicans, the second "vero in terra habitat et serpentibus pascitur" or "est in terra habitans, solitudinem diligens, cuius cibus sunt animalia venenosa, vt lacertae et huiusmodi"; ?! On a capital inside the church of St. Madeleine in Vézelay, two pelicans are depicted next to a sacrifice of Isaac, one with a snake hanging from its beak, while the other has something in its claw, since "omnia quae pelicanus comedit, primo pede in aquam tingit, et intinctum quasi cum manu pede ori applicat et opponit ". ^ These 'proprietas' and the framework of a bird's fight with the snake made it easier for the snake to penetrate the pelican report, but the decisive factor was the interpretation, based on the example of which the narrative text and nature report were changed, and without including the animal interpretation is the change not to make the animal report plausible. In the Romanian and Serbian Physiologus it is reported that the ostrich has to guard its eggs from the 'aspida'; because: "if she notices that the ostrich is guarding his eggs, she waits until he turns his gaze away, then she breathes over the eggs and destroys them completely". "In the same way the devil destroys the good deeds of man". Here, too, the snake has penetrated an animal report to which it does not belong by default, namely through a column that gives it the exclusion of 15

15 opening has opened. Such a parallel supports the analysis which I have put forward in an experiment. This new version finds its most obvious representation in pictures of the crucifixion, in which the pelican sacrificing himself in the nest stands on the cross, while the snake coils at the foot of the cross, but there is no causal connection between the two symbols. 4. "Fertur, si verum sit, pellicanus ..." First of all, from the abundance of variants, I would like to use a detailed example to demonstrate various ways in which exegesis penetrates the animal report, namely one that is appropriate for the narrative part has a more drastic effect than that the originally sacrificing pelican mother is replaced by the pelican father. This change would gain in general importance if it were related to the general disappearance of the idea of ​​'Christ as mother', an idea that was only sporadically preserved in the high Middle Ages. The comparable picture and the central point of this idea: "Hierusalem, Hierusalem ... quoties volui congregare filios tuos, quemadmodum gallina congregat pullos suos sub Mas, et noluisti" (Mt. 23, 37) was interpreted in early Christian times for the crucified with outspread arms . With the following examples I hope to be able to show that "the exploration of things is not separate from the theologically shaped exploration of the world", that rather "the descriptive component only gets its meaning from the exegetical". But in order to avoid a common misunderstanding, let it be said that in the Middle Ages, and even before Albertus Magnus, it was clear that the physiology reports in general, and the pelican report in particular, were not necessarily related to scientific truth to have. Such decisive authorities 'in matters of the Orient' as Alexander the Great or the Orient traveler par excellence Sir John Mandeville, whose profound influence on the general ideas of what was believed to actually exist in the Orient and India, cannot be overestimated In contrast to the phoenix, he cannot observe and describe the pelican during its self-sacrifice (or at least hear from it) and its reality cannot be authenticated. So it says in Isidor's description of the pelican: "Fertur, si verum sit", Petrus Lombardus means: "Pellicanus dicitur, etsi non certum sit ...", and Albertus rejects the Physiologus report with the 16

16 words: "Haec autem potius in hystoriis leguntur quam sint experimendo probata per physicam". 00 Like the unicorn, the pelican belongs to the "spiritual" animal figures and not to the "natural" ones, a distinction that does not concern the factuality of the animal (which was sufficiently secured by the Bible), or the knowledge that one has of the animal had (or did not have), but addresses their literary tradition. 81 Apart from the fact that, as according to Augustine's incident, for example, B. Isidore, Etym. 1, 40, 6 explains that so great importance was not attached to the truth of the narrative, if only the 'verax significatio' came to light. The pelican, for example, does not belong to the usual fabulous staff, as the Küster index shows. 33 ur is likewise missing in the 'Book of Examples of the Old Wise Men', in the song of the 'Bird Wedding', the 'Teachings of the Birds', 33 in the 'Federspiel, ABC with Wings', 84 in Alexander von Roes 'Pavo' or in folk puzzles , in KFW Wanders Sprichwort Lexikon as well as in L. Röhrich's Lexicon of proverbial idioms and in the caricature, 3 It does not even appear as a saint attribute. Yes, not even the native name of the pelican 'hûsegoum'85a or' sisegome 'is quite naturalized, and the pelican has found little resonance as a motif in folk art.86 In Jacob Ruff's play' Adam and Heva'87 Adam gives the animals names, partly according to an etymologizing process; 50 animals are usually given four each Lines, 33 are only mentioned in summary form. The pelican is missing in this abundance of animals just as conspicuously as in the 'palm tree treatise' and its numerous variants, 88 or in Wolfhart Spangenberg's rhyming poem 'Ganß König' from 1607, in which d he stately gathering of 78 birds, and not just native ones, marched up, but the pelican was not there. 88a But the term 'mythical creature' often used for the pelican is just as inappropriate for the Middle Ages as the frequently encountered designation of the pelican temple as 'legend' The pelican on the cross In a master song from around 1470, probably by the Meistersinger Nestler Kolmar song manuscript written by Speyer is called the first stanza: 90 GOt hat ym selb vff erd dry fogel vsserkorn the same vogel hant gotz lyden never sworn because he there leyt in front of all the widely known The pellicanus leyd dra eyer to the stunt above the nail dry the got han ser amazed 17

17 dar vss do sloff the bellikan so reyne Sin boys lie in front of ym dead because of enphet he so big smercze sin tru which brings in jn need he dies ym himself the beak in your heart with his bliit j ers sunted So tet got also on des cruczes came from there he was kind of amazed because he vns lost al von dez tuféis gang vj hundred vnd vj tusent ser vnd vj vnd sehzig wounds the lead got the was creator myn vmb vnser pin Got is the old pellican Vnd we sin syne young The sense of verses 4-6, which should be of interest here, is, as is so often the case with versions of this manuscript, not entirely transparent, especially since 'above' in the manuscript is indistinctly corrected (from 'praise'?). What is certain is that the three eggs from which the pelican hatches are seen parallel to the three nails with which Christ was crucified. It is obvious that the three nails are the primary one. A detail of the crucifixion scene has thus enriched the pelican report with the singularity of the three eggs or boys. For this direction of influence it should also be mentioned that on the one hand there is an abundance of depictions of the crucifixion in which the pelican is included in some form; The idea of ​​Christ on the tree of life, on the tree cross, on the Latin or on the fork cross with stumps of branches, or on the branch cross in its various forms may have been of importance. On the other hand, the three-nail crucifix is ​​one, e.g. B. Iconographic innovation of the 12th century, founded on the shame of Christ, which quickly became generally binding, although 1239 was still fought as an Albigensian heresy. 93 The number of pelican cubs, on the other hand, is mostly not mentioned in literary texts, 94 is not specified in pictorial representations and fluctuates between zero and seven, generally between two and four; however, the number of three clearly predominates. The constant magnitude of the interpretation thus established the variable magnitude in the example and thereby gave it a spiritual meaning. To what extent the knowledge of the 'pelican on the cross' was widespread, illustrates even better than the enumeration of pictorial evidence the following tax from the verse 'The pupil of Paris A'. The mourning lady over the dead lover: I still wish for a sundery wan, that I would like to live in as the pellican with blood from the heart, when the young ones pretend, so that around it dies, that comes to life. 18th

18 The scribe of the Bremer Märenmanschrift, 1st half of the 15th century, made it: 9 o nu I wish to argen wan ELÌSO the bird vff the crutzen can I mëhte with mines heart blows you here when he is younger dying. It is quite conspicuous that the writer, who is so badly reputed, brought about a 'lectio difficilior' - according to our current judgment - by replacing the clearly specifying name of the bird with the more general information about a - albeit widespread - source.But evidently a bird on the cross must have been so clearly identifiable and knowledge about it so familiar that, in reverse form, so to speak, this pictorial image could appear to a scribe with the keyword 'pelican' as if by itself. On the one hand, with this type of writer one will not want to think of a deliberate enigma, and on the other hand this description is obviously neither 'learned' nor a 'enigma' for the audience at that time. In the stanza quoted above, another detail of the late medieval mysticism of the Passion is mentioned at the end: vj hundred vnd vj tusent ser vnd vj and sixty wounds. Such a number is not mentioned in the Gospels. But it was precisely the late medieval Passion Treatises that outbid each other in such embellishments, which were intended to facilitate and promote devotional immersion and devotional immersion in the suffering of Christ. The introduction to the treatise “Christ's Passion Seen in Vision” 97 makes this attitude very evident, to which every detail was important. It is therefore clear that the number 6666, which was quite common in the Middle Ages as the equivalent of 'legio' 98 and, along with other similarly high numbers99, is often mentioned as the number of Christ's wounds, serves to increase the report and to 'compassio' with prompting, yes, intended to stimulate, visualized in the 'picture' of the pelican: Mine vil love, the two birds are a picture of iwers life. Wan ir the bvche not kvnnet, by the birds svlt ir see waz iv ze tvnne si. Mines trehtines geschephede sint iv niht give aingenote ze the ezzenne svnder show a picture. * -99 And the poet of 'Younger Titurel' expresses the idea even more clearly that through correct reading in the book of nature and intelligent learning from it man can gain his salvation: Got created human beings even toe parts daz zam and ouch daz wilde, ze good, ze use lib and sele ze parts. einhalp den lip with manger vrucht iz spiset, on the other hand ecclesiastical with virtues 1er di sel iz paradiset. 19th

19 6. The wonderful revival of the old pelican "Obviously the allegory was supposed to be heightened by that extension", * 02 Wilhelm Grimm formulated in passing about the pelican reports. Even if without the conceptual sharpness that is customary today, he thereby made a decisive development principle known; These details not only served for greater clarity, but they also offered opportunities to make the meaning of the example even more vivid. 103 This development process is to be pursued further in a second song from the Kolmar song manuscript. First the text: * ^ EYn slang is born of natural as I uch wil modestly in figures he leans towards the pellican vnt tot ym sine kinde The old thing flown from the young the slange het snuggled back to ym he let yn nirgent keynen life and wings of yn geswinde ^ ^ 3- The younger ones were all dead do from so came the old in. not as right from sinen synnen bij mynem got it saved not much more vff I let myself be tstten vff diser fart myns heart bloom wil I yn give that they win life THE old schrey the younger ones are wounded in smertze before bitterkeyt he sin hertze that he sin eygen blflt on s ach there from wil I say about the bird that was the cause of death that created life is nobody wants me stunted daz stunt bite on the third day the swan who came bite Because the dead bird lit daz he lives ym against git with sines synnes mqte With one of your warts he yn rüret so he lives against as before corn did daz bispel man ym like cri st vnserm Schopfer goodness DEr Pellican bet himself got so clare the kint daz sin the cristenheyt before ware 20

20 that he has warned so t8r with his bitter death Nülich I also the table to the slangen I am wary he has the wide vil vmb catch as he is the youngest man against vnd ​​nympt ym vii you grace Vnd waz likes nü the swan minded holy spirit with light shin to his father beautiful the bellican daz is billich Jesus crist who ye what got vnd ​​ymmer me was when i look nü daz syder so treyt got lobes krone In the Physiologusbericht is just like in the version in which the snake kills the pelican young, and this song follows, a 'void' which, as one should think, almost invites filling, namely: what happens to the old pelican after his self-sacrifice, or what corresponds in the nature account of Christ's resurrection? That the assignment of pelican and resurrection, in which the emphasis of the interpretation is shifted from self-sacrifice to the 'resurrectio' on the third day, was common. B. the iconographic use of the pelican on an Easter carpet, where it is to be seen as a resurrection symbol; * ^ or a song from the Kolmar master song manuscript, * 06 in which the phoenix, pelican, eagle, ostrich and lion as 'byspil' to serve for a 'man', "the slfrf bit on the third day" and that ends: "allelüia is nü gesong / vff dysen holy paschal day". This conclusion also suggests a relationship between the song and Easter, as does the end of the first stanza: "Got is the noble fenix good / who is younger on the Easter day and is always so high". This shift in meaning from death to resurrection goes hand in hand with a change of perspective within the pelican nest, since the young are also included in the process of resurrection. This change is also tangible syntactically. If, on the one hand, the old man and his self-sacrifice are subject, the young are objects, as in the verbal sentence: Pelicanus ego natus de virgine mera [on 'pura'] Morte mea dira pullis do gaudia vera, then on the other hand the resuscitation of the young is also subject and This moves on an equal footing with the self-sacrificing pelican, as the saying goes: Ut pelicanus fit matris sanguine sanus Sic nos sanati sumus omnes sanguine nati or: "... Sic genus humanum fit Christi sanguine sanum". But with this shift in meaning it is also important to note the theological content of Easter: "There it is not just about the resurrection in the tri 1 fi 7 21

21 umphalous sense. According to the liturgical texts, especially the celebration of Easter Vigil has from ancient times been laden with the meaning of death and resurrection at the same time; it is about the synopsis of the two events as a single, related 'passage' ". Thus, on the miniature cited note 74, the opened heavenly gate above the cross and the pelican on it already points to the future resurrection.! a Schmidtke [ Note 11] lists in his catalog of animal interpretations for the question mentioned only one example from the young print version of the 'Etymachietraktate',! In which the weakened pelican is partly nourished by the newly revived young, but partly neglected 3, 30; "illum oportet crescere, me autem minui" was not known to me. The poet of this song picks up at this 'void' mentioned and brings in the second stanza a report full of peculiarities. The apparition of the Holy Spirit - so the interpretation - in the shape of a swan poses several puzzles, the resuscitation by the swan with the help of a root is no less. "Darü In the Middle Ages, people speculated about why the Holy Spirit appeared in the form of a dove on the occasion of Christ's baptism; ü That is why the dove symbol for the Holy Spirit is particularly stable and uniform, ü! and to make no reason really plausible for the replacement of the pigeon by the swan. Because it is absolutely inconceivable that a medieval poet should not have known it. If it was a dove, the explanation of the root of life could be cited as the fact that the Jordan dove was seen together with the deluge dove, which carries the olive branch in its beak. Since, according to a legend, the cross of Christ is made from the wood of the olive tree that stood as the tree of life in Paradise and from which the Flood dove broke off a branch, one can also speak of the 'ramus refectionis', the dove in its beak wearing; ü2 because otherwise the snake has been the guardian and user of the roots or the herb of life since ancient times. g 0 one can also refer to the fact that in the 'Kudrun' an angel appears as a swan ('bird') !! * !, and that in the 'Lohengrin' the singing swan is taken for an angel, ü that in general the swan , probably because of his singing before his death, was considered a prophetic bird, and also occasionally appears as a minister of saints. But in spite of all this - the holy spirit in the shape of a swan is a unique specimen that will have penetrated the pelican account in an act of individual positioning, in which the poet could not have seen beyond the horizon of the poem. The fact that in general "a moral point takes precedence over the logical consequence of the image interpretation" is impressively confirmed here. Because on the one hand, the whole of Wieder 22

22 revival action not interpreted in the interpretation, and the pompously announced resolution: Vnd waz mag nü the swan gesin the holy spirit with light shin sounds a bit poor. But remember the practice, which seems so strange to us, that "this type of exegesis is punctual", that it is sufficient "that picture and thing have an analogy in some point, otherwise they may 'limp'". On the other hand, there is also a special participation of the Holy Spirit in the crucifixion and resurrection. B. on the incarnation, where its active function is included in the church symbols early on, hardly any 'expressis verbis' is mentioned; Depictions of the crucifixion alone with the dove of the Holy Spirit without God the Father also seem to be rarer. Precisely because this detail from the nature report about the pelican is not a type transfer, but an 'ad hoc' construction, which has its reason for the level of interpretation, the resurrection of Christ, and the task of creating a parallel action that can be interpreted, it can be found in do not insert any tradition.Although this part of the animal report has been narrated so vividly and in detail, has even achieved narrative independence, and is apparently not covered by the interpretation, one must not be fooled into the fact that it is secondary, a subsequent spinning out of a given action under a given task and goal setting means; it arises from the need and desire for allegorical accuracy, which, even in the details, only serves and is committed to the intended statement and teaching. On the whole, both songwriters have taken over and kept the animal report provided by tradition. You have expanded what has been given through details, made it more coherent in terms of the interpretation and thus improved it. In this way they have played their part in ensuring that the constants prescribed by tradition do not freeze, but rather remain alive in the flow. And that is noteworthy for a master singer within his rather limited possibilities and abilities. 7. The pelican on the dry tree The insights gained so far are intended to put analyzes of some further evidence from various literary areas on a broader basis. The two following pelican examples certainly no longer use the original, complete Physiologus depiction as a tradition 23

They only have the 'heart', the pelican's self-sacrifice, as a starting point, which has separated itself from the physiological tradition and has become independent (see no. 9 below). A peculiar variant of the pelican report can be found in the Grail Quest from the 'Lancelot' prose cycle, the second part of the Lancelot Grail trilogy conceived in a joachitic sense, as well as with some deviations in Ulrich Fueter's short version, the prose novel by 'Lanzelot', which was probably written before Fueter's strophic version of the 'Lantzilet' (after 1478). In search of the Grail, Bohort sees a large bird, whose name is not mentioned, flying over a tree, "which is old, one leaves and one fruit", and finally sits down with the many other small birds, "they were all dott ". l ^ la jjgj. If you notice this, he chops open his chest with his beak, revives the birds with his blood, but dies himself. The interpretation is the usual one, enriched by the "importance" of the tree: Since it came after none, he would see back into the air and saw a big bird flying over eynen tree, which was old, one leaves and one fruit. And since he had flown long above it, he slipped off the tree, and then he had a lot of cleyner bird, and they were all dott. And when he sacked on her and found her one life, he struck himself with a synem beak right through Syne's breast that the blood leaped from her. And as soon as they filled the warm bloom, they came back to life, and he died under yne. And so they received the beginning of yrem life with the blood of the great bird. Now I want to say the importance: The bird needs our creator, who, according to syner, makes man similar. And since he stumbled upon the paradise for the sake of syner's sake, he came up against it, because he had the dot fantasize about when something was wrong in life. The tree, one leaves and one fruit, means shinbarous ones that go far, in which to this zytt nothing else, then what sund and poverty and suffering. The young signified the human birth, so they lost something that they all ended up in the bright, the good as well as the bad, and were always in bitterness. Since god's sune the thing, there he became human and steyg up the tree, what about the crucz. Then he was struck with his beak, what he had stung with the spike from the glenen into the right syten as much as the blood shot into it. And from the blood syn boys came alive, the synen will have done, when he released them from the bright, since they were all dots, since there is still life within. The namelessness of the bird is just as out of the ordinary as the resuscitation of the many birds ("much cleyner vögelin") that are not their own young and that are already dead. Here, the translator did not quite understand his template correctly, in which it was clear, if perhaps a little unusual, of 'his 24

24 little birds' ("siens propres ne sai quans", after the Laa. App. Z. St.) is mentioned; even in the repetition the boys are referred to as "syn vogel" (III, p. 251,4), and only in the interpretation does the translator - following exactly the template - speak of the 'young' (III, p. 251, 12). There is never any question of 'father' or 'mother' or 'parents' unless one should understand "and daroff he hetted much cleyner vögelin" as a corresponding description. The absence of the name 'pelican' apparently irritated the translator and, under certain circumstances, did not let him even notice that he was dealing with the 'usual' pelican. The killing of the boys prior to the self-sacrifice seems to be missing, at least no specific statement is made about it, and the interpretation does not reveal the cause of the boys' death. Since the report is contradictory at all, because once it says: "Then they came back to life", and immediately afterwards: "And so they received the beginning of yrem living", it seems to me most likely that the author only a reduction level of the pelican report was known. So it would be understandable that as many strange features could flow into the animal report as the interpretation required. The extremely symbolic 'dry tree' that replaces the nest may come from the phoenix report in the 'Historia de preliis Alexandri Magni' because in this case too it is initially an 'avis magna' sitting on a tall tree, 'que nec folia nec fructus habebat ". But above all, the dead tree of knowledge that Seth saw in the center of Paradise (and the other dead trees in the Bible) should be remembered. Because the 'dry tree' in the reports of the priest-king John, the legend of the crucifixion and the three kings, the prophecies of the sibyls, the imperial prophecies, letters from the Turks and reports on journeys to the Orient, all of which represent a complex complex that cannot be completely disentangled, is one plays a multi-layered and important role, it has found an extraordinary spread in vernacular literature and the fine arts and should therefore also be seen here in this context. But the complex mentioned should have mainly become significant for Ulrich Fuetrer, who certainly had it in mind, as the withered tree is also interpreted morally in the legends of the cruciform wood. In general, Fuetrer's report and interpretation show some noteworthy, independent changes that are based on knowledge of the pelican temple and that show that Fuetrer's not only slavishly followed his model. His version reads: He raises the day piss umb die non, sach ainen paum sunder lewber, the skinny something; on it sat a beautiful bird, and in its nest lay vil totter birds. All that mattered, he pricked his aigen heart with his beak, and gave it to the birds in all; then they all became alive and he died, sparing that in the ser. 25th

25 The bird figures Christ. Do he came upon this well and we died in sin, so he flew to the paumb of holy crewtz; then he opens his gracious heart, naming the fron pluet, with which he makes us all happy, so that we do not fall into sin through the poignant snake of sin. Fuetrer traditionally relocates the revival scene from the dry tree to a nest that has been reintroduced 'expressis verbis'. Furthermore - with the interpretation already in mind - he lets the bird, which is no longer called large, but, also because of the interpretation, 125 "beautiful", sting itself "in its own heart" and not, 25a because of its original, " right through syne breast ". Here Fuetrer reinterprets the original, perhaps in analogy to the devotion to the Sacred Heart, which grew tremendously in the late Middle Ages, and he distances himself from the close connection to the biblical wording of the original. Fuetrer simplifies the double symbolism of the dry tree, which he found in the original, by passing over the unusual interpretation to "the far", which may be counterparts to the projections and the complex of images in Ps. 1, 3; 91, 13-15; Jer. 17, 8, Ez. 47, 12; Apoc. 22, 2 has been designed and developed. Fuetrer also linguistically pulls the image components 'tree' and 'cross', which are still conceptually separate in the original, into one image, since he can follow common ideas with his formulation "the paumb of the holy crewtz". In addition, Fuetrer mentions "the wicked serpent of sin" in the interpretation for which he "figures" the 'terminus technicus'. It is not possible to decide with certainty whether he allows a move from the later pelican version to flow into the interpretation (see note 66 ff. Above), but he confirms the way outlined above, by which the snake penetrated the pelican report. Fuetrer has thus compensated for a number of the most conspicuous deviations from tradition and, to a certain extent, 'normalized' 126 a mixture of freedom in relation to the original and being part of a tradition which - perhaps in contrast to the author of his original - he obviously knew well and with which he may have become familiar with through his work as a painter. * 27 But this presentation in the fresco of the Allegory of the Crucifixion by Giovanni da Modena (around 1420) took on a particularly impressive form and found its artistic expression; Christ is nailed to a cross that hangs in a dry tree, around the trunk of which the serpent coils; on the right stand Adam, Eve and the representatives of the old covenant, on the left Mary as Ecclesia in the communion of saints. 128 In any case, however, in the 'Lancelot', and particularly clearly in Ulrich Fuetrer's work, the interpretation is the giving part, the animal report the taking part. Especially in the Grail Quest there is a wealth of similar events, dreams and interpretations, in the context of which this "adventure" has to be seen. i2 9 and so the reception of the pelican temple from the 'Lancelot' in 26

26 of a northern Italian, Franciscan collection of specimens from the early 15th century * "^ not so much in the end with this 'Book of the Heavenly Knighthood'. 8.The pelican and scenes of the 'vita' of Christ If the variants of the pelican report discussed above were created through design-related design, the case for the variant to be considered in more detail below is a little different. Like the contamination of the pelican and unicorn reports, it came about through the transfer of the 'proprietas' of other animals, which was also based on interpretation. Schmidtke has drawn attention to a tract 'Das Geistliche Nest', which was written around 1500 and comes from the very widespread genre of allegorical garden descriptions, * ^ in which "edifying reflections on Christ's life and walk on earth" are made on the basis of birds and branches, and in which the pelican also appears as an example. The pelican's feeding of his young with his blood is briefly mentioned in the animal report and interpreted in the interpretation of the feedings of the 5000 and 4000: Am viij. day pit the holy father Benedictum and all who have been in his order, the sy want to be your companion; and let yourself be covered like the pellican flies out. He has the property, * "*" * that he pisses himself into his prust and feeds his young pellican with his own plut. What else is to be understood pey this bird that the gentleman's care that he has had vmb the people he doesn’t let fast from im gen wolt, sunder sy, alß (alß) appears in the v thousand people he is with v proten vnd ij fish feeds, even in the 4 thousand people. He did as the faithful pellican fed his young thut (thüt) vnd sy, nit only spiritually with his divine word, sunder sy also fed bodily .... The deminutive "pellicanlein" should be emphasized as an expression of particular emotionality and -relatedness, such as it is appropriate to the language of such a treatise, which serves spiritual edification, and, as in the late Middle Ages, it was generally quite common as a stylistic device. The second 'proprietas', which directly follows the first at the point left out above, is told in a little more detail: Another bird is the pelican's enemy and, when it has flown out, contaminates its nest 27

27 so that he then has to look for a new one. The antagonism of badger and fox has evidently been transferred to the pelican and its adversary, a nameless bird: * ^ 5 He also has a bird that is hostile to him. Whenever he sees that the pellican is fleeing out of its nest, it cleanses ims. So the pellican may not stay there any longer and pleads to another place, since it has its won ... The interpretation of this 'property': But as sy have blessed the great miracle, sy have to be in the growth of worldly events thrown in and wanting to become a king. But the lord of virtue has such a long way, which he has respected as mist, smiled and fled on a perg, connects with the first part of the interpretation, which it immediately follows, to a narrative sequence and scenic unity, while in the animal report - as in the Physiologus and in accordance with an otherwise widespread technique * 36 - the two 'proprietates' stand unconnected next to each other. For a section from Christ's earthly life 137 consisting of two episodes, the author chose the pelican known as the 'Christ Bird', the keyword 'feeding' being the 'tertium comparationis', the link between report and interpretation. The given material forced him to interpret the feeding of the hungry crowds in an unusual way, although the variant that the pelican nourishes its young with its blood ("spiset", "trenket", etc.) is widespread. * "* For the second part of the given substance of the interpretation, the author had to find a new property, apply it to the pelican and incorporate it into the animal report. He did not invent a completely new one, but rather transferred a behavior from other animals to the pelican and presented it in addition to the first, traditional one, * 9 where the reference to Ps. 101.7, the "pellicanus solitudinis", may have played a role. In the previous and also in the following examples, the new addition is integrated into the actual pelican report and the course of action, while it is only listed here. Only from the point of view of interpretation do the two modes of behavior of the pelican come together to form a unity. In the overall structure of the treatise, it is quite clear that the interpretative part, the 'vita' of Christ, the The preceding and decisive thing is, afterwards, the various animal examples, as it were, as allegorical clothing, as "rok der gelichnis" s ", * are attached. For his sake the type transfer was carried out, which then led to this new variant of the nature report. 28

28 9. The reduction stage: the self-sacrificing pelican In medieval symbolism, which, based on passages such as "Videmus nunc per speculum in enigmate, tunc autem facie ad faciem", largely shaped "thinking in pictures", and its most appropriate form of expression was allegory is, through sermons - the most important communication channel for popularizing theological ideas in broader sections of the population -, tracts and poetry, as well as through exegesis, a kind of image theology that also addressed the 'iliitterati' as a 'visible sermon' and that conveyed it Doctrine always kept in mind, so a well-known and widespread allegory like that of the pelican could be told more and more succinctly. The best-known example of this is probably the hymn to the Eucharistic devotion or to the exposition 'Adoro te devote' attributed to Thomas Aquinas. " The last stanzas ("Pie pelicane") were sometimes made with the elevation of the chalice related ": 14 ^ Pie pelicane Iesu domine Me immundum munda tuo sanguine Cuius una stilla salvum facere Totum mundum posset omni scelere. The extraordinary mental shortening of the idea that through the 'baptism of blood' man will be saved from 'death through sin' looks at first glance as if another variant of the Pelican report had emerged. But this is only shortened so that in a kind of 'substitution technique' 14 ^> the 'substitute' pelican could take the place of the 'substitute' Christ. As in many other cases of imagery, the allegory is shortened to a metaphor or drawn together into a single symbolic concept, entirely in accordance with the metaphor definitions offered by the rhetoric: "Similitudinis est ad verbum unum contrada brevitas, quod verbum in alieno loco tamquam in suo positum si agnoscitur, delectat "or" metaphora brevior est similitudo ". 14i> This process remains limited to the grammatical level of the literal sense and does not initially touch the level of the spiritual sense. The symbol itself is what it means, the pelican is Christ, regardless of which tropes and figures it is metaphorically circumscribed. The monk of Salzburg can say of Maria: "Maidieich stainwant, nam in dir pelikanus same ... todes fraise" - 'Virgin stone wall! the pelican seed ... took on the distress in you (not) '; 147 in praise of women 'Marienieich' Maria speak of herself: "Ich binz des edelen tiuren pellicânus bluot"; 14 in a Rhenish mystic manuscript the loving soul can be asked: "Immerse yourself in the flood that streamed from its noble side, enter the sweet wounded heart of the loving pelican and see how he nourishes his children"; 14 ^ or Dante finally can in the 'Divine Ko 29

29 mödie '(Parad. XXV, 114 f.) Apostrophize John as: "It is he who once lay on his breast our pelican". In view of this completely "non-illustrative imagery" of the examples * ^ "one must bear in mind that in the Middle Ages ... the 'pictorial quality' of the expression was often not so much realized and instead the intended meaning was grasped much more strongly": * ^ " The allegory metaphorically brought back into the picture dissolves the concrete clarity; a movement arises between picture and meaning, which aims to turn the representation and explication ... into an inner process, into a spiritual 'edification' ". The reduction of the pelican example from the Physiologus to the equation pelican = Christ has the consequence, however, that from the example only the 'main character', the sacrificing pelican remains, everything else is repelled. The iconographic representations are also limited to the moment of self-sacrifice, which has come to the fore so much that even the boys can be dispensed with, whose resuscitation is actually supposed to be self-sacrifice (see Appendix III); As a rule, there was no animal story in the picture with regard to the pelican. 153 With this reduction, the connection to the tradition of the pelican report as a whole is loosened, if not completely broken. This applies in the religious field as well as for the pelican in secularized use, as a stanza from the 'Younger Titurel' shows; 155 Whether I heart nv tusent. in minem libe trvge. in total smacking. me devht ir all even die. I had to go through it at all. than from the pellicane. biz dv the world with frevden liked to watch. As a result, however, this reduction process, which initially only takes place on the level of the literal sense, gains a more far-reaching and profound effect, as it penetrates to the level of the spiritual sense and also has consequences for the 'res' itself, the 'figura' Pelican, which manifest themselves in further changes and changes in the pelican temple. 10. Reinterpretations of the self-sacrifice: a) nus sanguine lactans' P elica- The consequences of the loosening of the connection to the full Physiologus report are intended to clarify two examples, of which the first is, for once, not a single text, but taken from a collection

30 very different texts exist, which are united by the common change; This procedure is conditioned by the spread of this particular form. O. note 138 the variant has already been mentioned that the pelican nourishes its young with the HerTalut. In this variant, which is mainly used in more recent texts and incomprehensible modern descriptions, the old, actual central symbolism, the revival, is eliminated in a rationalizing way, as already mentioned in laudation, and for which Reinsch's remarks provide a characteristic example. 156 This, to a certain extent 'scientifically' arguing, intention becomes particularly clear in the second Pelikan version, which Brunetto Latini communicates in his 'Li Livres dou Tresor'.The young are born very weak and kept alive with their parents' blood; 157 Mais aucunes genz serves que il naissent ausi come sans vie, et lor pere et lor mere les garissent de lor sane. Mais coment que il soit, sainte yglise le tesmoigne bien, la ou Nostre Sires dist, je suis venuz de pelican par semblance; and the sermon text cited above, note 41, in which the boys are "warmed" with the blood, represents a further variant in this process of rationalization, which culminates in the 'scientific' statement that the boys are not killed properly at all . This version, which at least maintains the connection between killing and resuscitation, is spread extraordinarily widely and for a long time in a pamphlet subordinated to Albertus Magnus: If his youngsters are killed / that is / that their heart is not broken / taken from their blood / and so warm in the mouth of a bird / they will soon take life as before. The modern attitude towards natural history has thrown off inherited natural symbolism and animal interpretations as ballast, but it has retained the part of the physiology that calls the animal's 'proprietas' and endeavored to give it scientific probability; However, she was not yet in a position to separate herself from the central statement of the Physiologus and to stamp out the killing of the boys and the self-sacrifice that resulted from it. The literary tradition still triumphs over experimental experience or visual appearance, in that what has been handed down to the past is 'tinkered with', but the step towards a fundamental renewal has not yet been taken. Even if the respective novelty is not taken up in the interpretation (if there is one at all), there is still no development of the same, known type independent of the interpretation, which would have come to an individual expression in the variety of phenomena. Together, examples and interpretations in their function (e.g. as a sermon fairy tale) and in their literary context (e.g. in an encyclopedia) are adaptable to the limits of the recognizable

31 However, the relationship between example and interpretation sets the norm according to which that is based on an image and changes accordingly. It is evident that this version of the pelican feeding his young with his blood reinterprets self-sacrifice in terms of the Eucharistic food obtained through the Passion of Christ. But apart from this eucharistic interpretation of the pelican example, which has been shortened to the 'food version', there is also another spiritual interpretation, which has already been documented above note 138, and which seems to precede the development of the pelican as a eucharistic symbol outlined below. It seems to me to be of considerable importance for the creation and development because it possibly indicates the starting point of this 'dining version'. Richstätter quotes from a letter that was probably written in Dominican circles and is preserved in a manuscript from the Nuremberg Catherine's Monastery from the 15th century. 93] a passage belonging here: At the wounds of the crucified one we have five stations a day, the third station at the heart wound of Jesus Christ. St. Bernhard wishes that when he dies, his soul wants to rest there. Remember the paternal [s. o. note 76] Faithfulness to Jesus Christ! Like the pelican, he opened his heart to us and nourished us with his blood. He also nourishes you with his teaching, which emerges from the loving breast of Christ Jesus, on which the love disciple John rested (p. 180). Under certain circumstances, this 'food version' may even have arisen due to misinterpretations of iconographic models and models, since the boys are often depicted with open beaks into which the blood from the old man's chest squirts. Wolframs formulation59 a bird heats pellicânus: swenne der early wins, alze sere he minnet: in twinget sfner triwe lust daz he bfzet through his same breast, und laetz bluot the boy in the munt: he dies of the same stunt clearly indicates one figurative conveyance of the pelican 'picture', as in verse 17, which is decisive here, it resembles a description of the picture, the written form of an iconographic model. This would also explain why Wolfram's text is so difficult to assign to a particular tradition. This variant could still find support through formulations from natural history literature, such as those found e.g. B. in Arnoldus' Saxo Encyclopedia find Avis pellicânus vel onocrotulus a pulis suis ceditur, et tunc ipsos interficit, et per tres dies plangit eos, et se ipsam lacerat et sugit anime sanguinerei pectoris sui, et fundit super eos, et fovet, et vivificantur .