What is the capital of Kyrgyzstan 1
I. Preliminary remarks
The Central Asian state of Kyrgyzstan is located in the high mountains of Tianshan; the highest elevation reaches 7439 m (Dschengisch Tschokusu). Its capital is Bishkek (formerly Frunze) with about 630,000 inhabitants. The second largest city is Osh with about 220,000 inhabitants. The population is concentrated mainly in the Tschüital in the north and the Ferghana valley in the south and, to a lesser extent, in mountain valleys such as that around the large lake Issykköl. The southern end of the country is formed by the Alai mountain range. The Naryn, Tschüi and Talas are among the most important rivers in the country. Kyrgyzstan borders the People's Republic of China, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan.
The Kyrgyz people are first mentioned in Chinese chronicles in the 2nd century BC. From 1219 Kyrgyzstan belonged to the Mongol empire of Genghis Khan, after his death to the legacy of Chagatais, a son of Genghis Khan. The area remained Mongolian until it was conquered by the Chinese in the 18th century. In the course of the 19th century it became dependent on the Kokand Khanate, and in 1876 the area of today's Kyrgyzstan became part of the Russian Empire. In 1921 the area became part of the Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic of Turkestan within the Russian Federal Socialist Soviet Republic, in 1924 it was incorporated into the Karakirgis Autonomous Area of the Kyrgyz ASSR, in 1925 it was renamed the Kyrgyz Autonomous Region, and from 1936 what is now Kyrgyzstan belonged to the USSR and then existed as its subject until its disintegration.
The country has been independent since August 31, 1991. The first president was Askar Akayev, who had been president of the Kyrgyz SSR since 1990. In the first years of independence, Kyrgyzstan stood out as an "island of democracy" among the successor republics of the Soviet Union. Akaev's style of government became increasingly authoritarian from the end of the 1990s. The »tulip revolution« after the parliamentary elections of February 2005 led to the overthrow of President Akayev. Kurmanbek Bakiyev became the new president. Bakiyev fled in 2010 after renewed unrest. The subsequent interim government under Rosa Otunbajewa held a referendum on a constitutional amendment that transformed the country into a parliamentary republic. The current president is Almasbek Atambayev.
Today the country has a total of 5.5 million inhabitants, of which 60% are rural. Most of the population is made up of the Kyrgyz (65%). There are also Uzbeks (13.8%), Russians (12.5%), Dungans (Chinese Muslims, 1.1%), Uyghurs (1.0%), Ukrainians (1.0%), Tajiks (0.9%) %), Tatars (0.9%), Kazakhs (0.9%) and members of other ethnic groups such as 57,000 Meshes in the country. At the beginning of the 1990s, around 100,000 Kyrgyz Germans (mostly Baptists or Mennonites) still lived there, most of whom have since emigrated to Germany. In 1999 there were still around 20,000 Germans (0.4% of the population) in Kyrgyzstan. Their number was estimated at around 12,000 in 2007.
The majority of the population professes the Islamic religion (Sunni direction), the rest is made up of Christians (Orthodox, Protestants and Catholics) as well as smaller minorities of other faiths.
In the constitution, which was adopted on May 5th, 1993, Kyrgyzstan is defined in Art 1 as a sovereign, unitary and democratic republic, which is established on the principles of a secular constitutional state. In addition, an extensive catalog of fundamental rights and other legal instruments is identified, in line with a modern democratic constitutional state.
The Kyrgyz language belongs to the group of Turkic languages and is the state language according to Article 5, Paragraph 1 of the constitution. The Russian language is the official language according to article 5, paragraph 2 of the constitution. The jurisprudence takes place in the Kyrgyz and Russian languages (Art 11 ZPGB).
The ordinary jurisdiction in Kyrgyzstan is structured as follows: Supreme Court of Kyrgyzstan, Supreme Economic Court of Kyrgyzstan, local courts (district courts, court of the city of Bishkek, district and city courts and military courts).
The judiciary consists of three instances. Courts of first instance are the district and city courts as well as the military courts of the garrisons. The second judicial instance consists of the regional courts, the Bishkek City Court and the Kyrgyzstan Military Court, which decide on appeals.
The courts of third instance act as supervisory bodies. The courts of the first instance decide in single judge proceedings, the second instance decides in the form of a panel of judges (at least three judges). The independence of judges is guaranteed by the constitution.
The country's legal system is currently still under construction, so that further reforms are required in order to fill it with life, especially in terms of content. The legislative acts of the former Soviet Union continue to apply on the territory of Kyrgyzstan, as long as they do not contradict Kyrgyz normative acts.
Kyrgyzstan is a member of 25 international organizations, such as the United Nations and its sub-organizations such as UND, UNIDO, UNHCR, IOM, WHO, FAO and ILO and still part of the CIS and the Five Union (with the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan). In addition, there are memberships in e.g. GIS, ECO, World Bank, IMF, EBRD, OSCE, Intelsat and WTO. Since the partnership and cooperation agreement with the EU came into force on July 1, 1999, the country has received financial support from it. There is cooperation between Kyrgyzstan and NATO within the framework of the Partnership for Peace.
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