Is nitrogen an element or a compound


Nitrogen - chemical symbol N (from Nitrogenium), atomic number 7 - is a colorless, odorless and tasteless gaseous chemical element of the 5th main group of the periodic table (group 15; pentele) under normal conditions.


Overview: General data on nitrogen


The N atom - and thus the chemical element nitrogen - is clearly defined by the 7 positively charged protons in the atomic nucleus. The same number of electrons ensures the electrical balance in the uncharged nitrogen atom.

The nuclear building blocks of the neutrons ensure that there are differences between the atomic nuclei. These types of atoms are under the term Nitrogen isotopes or nitrogen nuclides (isotope data: see there).

The earthly nitrogen deposits consist of an isotope mixture of four different nuclides; the relative atomic mass is given as 14.007 u.


Electron configuration

symbolOZshort form1s2s2p
N7[He] 2s2 2p3223


Ionization energies

The following table lists the binding energies or the ionization energies IE of nitrogen, i.e. the energy required in electron volts (eV) to separate a specific electron from a nitrogen atom.

1. IE: 14.5341 eV2. IE: 29.6013 eV3. IE: 47.44924 eV4. IE: 77.4735 eV5. IE: 97.8902 eV6. IE: 552.0718 eV
7. IE: 667,046 eV8. IE: eV9. IE: eV10. IE: eV11. IE: eV12. IE: eV


Electron binding energy

The following table lists the electron binding energies of the individual nitrogen electrons in the respective orbitals. The values ​​are given in electron volts (eV).



Further data


Spectral lines of nitrogen

The following figure shows an emission spectrum of nitrogen with the characteristic spectral lines in the visible wavelength range between 400 and 700 nm:



Chemical data


Standard potentials

Normal potential of nitrogen:

E.0 (V)NoxName Ox.Ox.e-Red.Name Red.Nox
-3,090nitrogen3/2 N2 (g) + H++ e-HN3 (G)Hydrazoic acid- III
-3,040nitrogenN2 (g) + 4H2+ 2 e-2 NH2OH + 2 OH-Hydroxylamine- I.
0,0920nitrogenN2 (g) + 2H2O (aq)+ 6 e-2 NH4OH (aq)Ammonium hydroxide- III
0,11- IIHydrazine (aq) + 4H2O+ 2 e-2 NH4+ + 4 OH-Ammonium ion- III
0,8+ VNitrate anionNO3- (aq) + 2H+ (aq)+ e-NO2 (g) + H2O (aq)Nitrogen dioxide+ IV
1,42- I.Hydroxylammonium ion2NH3OH+ + H++ 2 e-N2H5+ + 2 H.2OHydrazinium ion- II


Material and physical properties of nitrogen

The following overview shows some physical data and material properties of pure nitrogen in the form of N.2 on.



External information offers

Group items - information

Compound classes

Individual connections

Nitrogen and nitrogen compounds
Chemical database: physical and chemical properties, safety data sheets, commercially available substances and compounds; various search criteria including structure search

Synthesis, manufacture, production

Ammonia synthesis 10
... according to the Haber-Bosch process. Schematic overview. Lecture materials Technical Inorganic Chemistry. University of Freiburg - Format: PDF

Ammonia synthesis 2
... according to the Haber-Bosch process. General information on reaction technology. University of Freiburg - Format: PDF

Ammonia synthesis 3
... according to the Haber-Bosch process. Flow diagram of an ammonia plant. University of Freiburg - Format: PDF

Analysis and determination

Geochemistry and biogeochemistry

News archive

Institutes and research facilities

Research project: nitrogen limitation in inland waters


Category: Chemical elements

Updated on 26.04.2020.


© 1996 - 2021 Internetchemie ChemLin