Why do gums and neck bleed

Inflammation of the gums

Gingivitis is usually caused by bacteria. A distinction must be made between acute gingivitis and chronic gingivitis. The two forms are primarily to be differentiated through the course over time. Only in rare cases are it not bacteria but fungi or viruses that cause painful, reddened, swollen and inflamed gums.

The most common cause: poor dental hygiene

The reason that gingivitis usually breaks out is poor dental hygiene. Due to deposits and plaque, pathogens that occur naturally in the oral flora have easy play and multiply quickly. If there are too many pathogens in the oral cavity, the body's immune system reacts and inflammation of the oral mucosa occurs.

Gum injuries as a trigger

Small injuries to the gums can be the cause of gingivitis. These arise, for example, from being burned on food that is too hot, during treatment at the dentist or from brushing your teeth too vigorously - especially when using dental floss.

Braces with sharp edges, dentures or not optimally fitting teeth can also cause open or irritated gums. If the gums are sore after an injury or irritation, bacteria can easily lodge in the affected area and cause inflammation.

Risk factors: stress, hormonal changes and smoking

Other risk factors for gum inflammation are stress, a weakened immune system, and the consumption of alcohol or nicotine. Hormonal changes during puberty or pregnancy can also trigger such an inflammation.

Smokers often complain of inflammation of the gums. It does not matter whether you use a cigarette, pipe, cigar or vaporizer. The reason: Smoking worsens blood circulation. This leaves traces particularly quickly in the mouth, as the blood vessels there are much finer than in other parts of the body. There is a lack of nutrients and a lack of oxygen, which makes the gums much more susceptible to infection.

In addition to the increased susceptibility, smoking has another consequence: Due to the poor blood circulation, the gums of smokers start to bleed less often and the color of the gums remains light pink. The typical reddening does not appear. This makes it difficult to even recognize the inflammation of the gums. The person concerned often only notices it when the gingivitis is at an advanced stage and pain occurs.