Is mushroom a multicellular or unicellular organism

am Puls Biologie 5, textbook

20 Fungi are eukaryotes with cell walls made of chitin Fungi are eukaryotic organisms of the Fungi realm. They feed heterotrophically like animals. In contrast to animals, however, the cells of the fungi have a cell wall. It contains chitin 1. In addition, fungi cannot move - they can only spread with the help of their spores 2. Among the mushrooms there are both unicellular and multicellular forms. The unicellular fungi include yeasts, which play an important role in biotechnology (industrial use of biological organisms) (see Chapter 6.2). Multicellular fungi, on the other hand, colonize a substrate such as old wood or the ground and run through it with fungal threads, the hyphae (k Fig. 11). You are probably familiar with the edible fruiting bodies of the mushrooms, such as the spotted umbrella of the parasol or the white umbrella of the meadow mushroom. The fruiting bodies are also called the spore carriers of the mushrooms, since they are the source of the spores. Many fungi live in the soil and are responsible in ecosystems for the degradation of biological material. Certain fungi enter into a symbiosis with plants. It is estimated that the so-called mycorrhiza (fungal root), in which fungi grow into the roots of plants, occurs in 90% of all plant species. The mycorrhiza is beneficial for both the fungus and the plant. The fungus is also nourished by the plant and with the help of the fungus the plant can better absorb nutrient salts from the soil (see p. 126). Other fungi can cause disease or attack animals as parasites. A spectacular example is the mushroom Ophiocordyceps unilatera lis. It attacks ants in the tropical rainforest. The fungus infects the animal, and finally the fruiting body of the fungus grows out of the ant's head (k Fig. 12). The ant dies in the process. On the other hand, the nail fungus in humans (an infection of the fingernails and toenails by fungi), which is easily treatable, seems really harmless! Multicellular fungi cross the soil with their hyphae Fig.11: Multicellular fungi cross the substrate with their hyphae. Fig.12: Fruit bodies of a parasitic fungus grow out of the body of an infected ant. Plants are autotrophic organisms Glossary 1 Chitin: An organic substance that is found not only in the cell wall of fungi, but also in the outer skeleton of insects and crustaceans, for example. 2 Spores: Spores are the name given to the spreading bodies of the fungi. They are made by the fruiting bodies. 3 Chloroplasts: organelles of the plant cells in which photosynthesis takes place, see Chapter 1.5. Task W 1 Current research results show that the fungus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis manipulates the ant's behavior before it kills it. The researchers say that the fungus turns ants into “zombies”. Research how the fungus brings this about and explain how the infected ants behave. Plants are eukaryotic organisms that belong to the Plantae organism kingdom. Most of them are multicellular, although there are also single-celled forms (some algae). In contrast to animals, they use sunlight for energy supply by means of photosynthesis. You will learn more about photosynthesis in Chapter 2.4. The cells of the plants have chloroplasts 3 for this - that is why plants are green. You can find out more about the structure of plant cells in section 1.5. In addition, the entire chapter 5 is devoted to botany, the science of the organism of plants. Plants are eukaryotes that carry out photosynthesis. For testing purposes only - property of the publisher öbv

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