Why are Chudasama Rajputs called Ahir Ranas
Gujarati people - Gujarati people
The Gujarati people or Gujaratis is an Indo-Aryan ethnolinguistic group speaking Gujarati, an Indo-Aryan language. While they mainly live in the Indian state of Gujarat, they have a diaspora worldwide. Gujaratis are prominent entrepreneurs and industrialists, and many notable independence activists were Gujarati, including Mahatma Gandhi and Mohammed Ali Jinnah.
Despite significant migration, mainly for economic reasons, most of the Gujaratis in India live in the western Indian state of Gujarat. Gujaratis also form a significant part of the population in the neighboring metropolis of Mumbai and in the area of the Dadra and Nagar Haveli trade unions and Daman and Diu, a former Portuguese colony. There are very large Gujarati immigrant communities in other parts of India, particularly in Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore and other cities like Kochi. Throughout history, Gujaratis have earned a reputation for being India's greatest merchants, industrialists and entrepreneurs and have therefore been leaders in migrations around the world, especially in regions that were part of the British Empire such as Fiji, Hong Kong, Malaya. East Africa and South Africa. Diasporas and transnational networks in many of these countries go back more than a century. In the past few decades, large numbers of Gujaratis have emigrated to English-speaking countries such as the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States.
In anthropological surveys in India, about 60% of the population say that their community is a migrant to their state or region. In Gujarat, that number is around 70%. In the state, 124 out of 186 Hindu communities claim to have been migrants in the past. For example, the Audichya brahmins claim that they are migrating from what is now Uttar Pradesh. With Muslims in Gujarat, 67 out of 86 communities claim to be migrants.
Early European travelers like Ludovico di Varthema (15th century) traveled to Gujarat and wrote about the people of Gujarat. He noted that Jainism had a strong presence in Gujarat and said that Gujaratis were robbed of their kingdom by Mughals because of their kindness of heart. His description of Gujaratis was:
... a certain race that eats nothing that has blood, never kills living things ... and these people are neither moors nor pagans ... if they were baptized they would all be saved by the virtue of their works, e.g. you never do to others what they would not do to them.
In 1790-1 an epidemic devastated many parts of Gujarat, killing 100,000 Gujaratis in Surat alone.
An outbreak of bubonic plague in 1812 is believed to have killed about half of Gujarati's population.
Orthodox Gujarati Society, which was commercial by nature, was historically organized along ethno-religious lines and shaped in existence on the strength of its Mahajan ("guild assemblies") and for the establishment of Nagarsheth ("head of the guild assembly") ;; A 16th century Mughal system resembling medieval European guilds that self-regulated the trade affairs of multiethnic, multireligious communities in the Gujarati bourgeoisie long before local state policy was introduced. Historically, Gujaratis, of many faiths and castes, flourished in an inclusive climate marked by a degree of cultural syncretism, in which Hindus and Jains professions such as shroffs and brokers dominated while Muslims, Hindus and Parsis largely dominated the maritime trade dominated. As a result, religious interdependence, tolerance, assimilation and community cohesion ultimately became hallmarks of modern Gujarati society.
The Gujarati are predominantly Hindus. There are also populations of Gujarati Muslims, Jains, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Parsis, Jews and followers of the Baháʼí Faith.
The main communities in Gujarat are the main seafarers and seafood exporters Kharwa, traditional farmers such as Patel, Bharvad and Rabari, artisan communities (Gurjar, Prajapati, Sindhi Mochi), Brahmin communities (such as Joshi, Anavil, Nagar, Modh, Shrimali), farming communities ( such as Patel and Koli, genealogical communities (such as Charans and Barots), Kshatriya communities (such as Koli Thakor, Banushali, Choudhary Jats, Kathi Darbars, Karadia, Nadoda, Dabhi, Chudasama, Ahir, Lohana, Maher)), tribal communities (such as Bhils , Meghwal and Kolis, Gamit, Konkani, Varli), Vaishya (like Bhatia, Soni) and Devipujak (like Dataniya, Dantani, Chunara, Patni).
The majority of Gujarati Muslims are Sunnis. The minorities include Nizari Ismailis, Bhadala, Daudi Bohra, Memon, Khoja, Sayyid, Siddhi, Patni Jamat, Vahora and Quraysh.
Gujaratis have a long history of seafaring and a history of overseas migration to foreign countries, to Yemen, Oman Bahrain, Kuwait, Zanzibar and other countries in the Persian Gulf, as a commercial culture resulted naturally from the state's proximity to the Arabian Sea. The countries with the largest populations in Gujarati are Pakistan, Great Britain, the United States, Canada, and many countries in South and East Africa. Globally, Gujaratis make up an estimated 33% of the Indian diaspora worldwide and are found in 129 out of 190 countries listed as sovereign nations by the United Nations. Non-resident Gujaratis (NRGs) maintain active ties with the home country through business, remittance, philanthropy, and through their political contribution to state-governed domestic affairs.
Gujarati parents in the diaspora are uncomfortable with the possibility that their language won't outlive them. In one study, 80% of Malay parents said "kids are better off with English," compared with 36% of Kannada parents and only 19% of Gujarati parents.
There has been a large community of Gujarati Muslims especially in the Pakistani province of Sindh for generations. Community leaders say there are 3,500,000 speakers of the Gujarati language in Karachi. Most of them emigrated after the partition of India and the subsequent establishment of Pakistan in 1947. These Pakistani gujaratis mainly belong to the Ismāʿīlī, Khoja, Dawoodi Bohra, Chundrigar, Charotar Sunni Vohra, Khatri Muslims, Kutchi memons and Khatiawari memons. However, many Gujaratis are also part of Pakistan's small but dying Hindu community. Famous Gujaratis of Pakistan include Muhammed Ali Jinnah (Father of Pakistan), Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar (Sixth Pakistani Prime Minister), Sir Adamjee Haji Dawood (Philanthropist), Abu Bakr Osman Mitha (Major General) and Abdul Razzak Yaqoob (Philanthropist). Javed Miandad (Pakistani cricketer), Abdul Sattar Edhi (humanitarian worker), Jehangir H. Kothari (philanthropist), Abdul Gaffar Billoo (philanthropist), Sarfraz Ahmed (Pakistani cricketer), Ramzan Chhipa (philanthropist), Tapu Javeri (Pakistani fashion and Art photographer)), Pervez Hoodbhoy (Pakistani nuclear physicist), Ardeshir Cowasjee (Pakistani critic and social activist). Dipak Bardolikar (poet).
There are relatively many Gujarati Muslims who have settled in Sri Lanka. They mainly represent the Dawoodi Bhora and the Memon community, and there is also a minority Sindhi in Sri Lanka. These communities are primarily concerned with trading businesses and have recently diversified into different trades and sectors. Gujarati Muslims began their trade route between India and Ceylon (Sri Lanka) in the late 1880s. Large numbers of Gujarati Muslims emigrated after the partition of India in 1947. These communities are known for their social activities in Sri Lanka. In addition, by developing large corporations in Sri Lanka, Gujarati Muslims have demonstrated excellence in business and various industries. Few of them are: Expolanka, Brandix, Amana Bank of Sri Lanka, Adam Group, Akbar Tea, Timex Garments and Abans Group. Members of this community cultivate their Indian Gujarati culture in their daily life. Bhoras speak the Gujarati language and follow Shiite Islam, and the Memon speak the Memon language and follow Sunni Hanafi Islam.
The United States has the second largest Gujarati diaspora after Pakistan. The highest population concentration of over 100,000 people is in the metropolitan area of New York City alone, particularly in the growing diaspora center of Gujarati on India Square in Jersey City, New Jersey, and in Edison in Middlesex County in central New Jersey. Significant immigration from India to the United States began after the landmark Immigration and Citizenship Act of 1965. Early immigrants after 1965 were highly skilled workers. As U.S. immigration laws allow the encouragement of immigration of parents, children, and especially siblings, on the basis of family reunification, the numbers swelled rapidly. Some Gujarati migrated twice or three times because they came directly from the former British colonies of East Africa or from East Africa via Great Britain. Given the Gujarati's propensity for business, some of them opened stores and motels. Now in the 21st century, over 40% of the hotel industry in the United States is controlled by Gujaratis. Gujaratis, especially the Patidar Samaj, also dominate as franchisees in fast food restaurant chains like Subway and Dunkin 'Donuts. The descendants of the Gujarati generation of immigrants have also made a great deal of progress in professional fields, including doctors, engineers and politicians. In August 2016, Air India started flight service for individual aircraft (without transfer) between Ahmedabad and Newark Liberty International Airport in New Jersey via London Heathrow International Airport.
Notable Gujarati Americans include Sunita Williams (NASA astronaut), Ami Bera (United States Congress), Reshma Saujani (American politician), Sonal Shah (Whitehouse economist), Raj Shah (White House deputy press secretary under President Trump), and Rohit Vyas (Indian-American journalist), Bharat Desai (CEO Syntel), Vyomesh Joshi (Forbes), Romesh Wadhwani (Forbes), Raj Bhavsar (sports) Halim Dhanidina (first Muslim judge in California), Savan Kotecha (Grammy-nominated American Songwriters) and Hollywood actresses, Sheetal Sheth and Noureen DeWulf.
Gujaratis have had a long relationship with the UK. The original East India Company established a factory (trading post) in the port city of Surat in Gujarat in 1615. These were the beginnings of a first real British involvement in India, which eventually led to the establishment of the British Raj. The third largest Gujaratis overseas diaspora after Pakistan and the United States is located in the United Kingdom. With around 600,000 inhabitants, Gujaratis make up almost half of the Indian community living in the UK (1.2 million). Gujaratis first went to Great Britain in the 19th century with the establishment of the British Raj in India. Prominent members of this community such as Shyamji Krishna Varma played an important role in exerting political pressure on the colonial powers during the Indian independence movement.
Today's Gujarati diaspora in Great Britain is composed primarily of second and third generation descendants of "double-sized" immigrants from the former British colonies of East Africa, Portugal and the Indian Ocean islands. Most of them, despite being British subjects, had limited access to Britain under successive immigration laws of 1962, 1968 and 1971. However, most were eventually admitted on the basis of a quota voucher system or, in the case of Uganda, as refugees following the deportation warrant of the Ugandan ruler Idi Amin in August 1972.
Gujaratis in Great Britain are considered to be wealthy bourgeois peoples who have integrated into the milieu of British society. They are celebrated for revolutionizing the corner shop and kickstarting the UK economy that forever changed the UK's outdated retail laws. Demographically speaking, Hindus form a majority along with significant numbers of Jains and Muslims and fewer Gujarati Christians. They are mostly located in metropolitan areas such as Greater London, East Midlands, West Midlands, Lancashire and Yorkshire. Cities with significant Gujarati populations include the boroughs of Harrow, Barnet and Brent in Leicester and London. There is also a small but lively Gujarati-speaking Parsi community of Zoroastrians in the country, dating back to the past of Dadabhai Navroji, Shapurji Saklatvala, and Pherozeshah Mehta. Both Hindus and Muslims have established caste or community associations, temples, and mosques to meet the needs of their respective communities. A well-known temple popular with Gujaratis is the BAPS Swaminarayan Temple in Neasdon, London. A popular mosque for the Gujarati Muslim community in Leicester is the Masjid Umar. Leicester has a Jain temple that is also the headquarters of Jain Samaj Europe. The Shree Prajapati Association is a charity that is already thriving in East Africa. It has 13 offices in the UK and relies heavily on the support of the Gujarati community in the UK.
Gujarati Hindus in Great Britain have cultivated many traditions from their homeland. The community remains religious with more than 100 temples to cater to their religious needs. All the great Hindu festivals such as Navratri, Dassara and Diwali are celebrated with great enthusiasm even by generations who have grown up in Great Britain. Gujarati Hindus also retain their caste affiliations to some extent, with most large castes having their own parish association in each population center with significant Gujarati populations such as the suburbs of Leicester and London. Patidars make up the largest community in the diaspora, including the Kutch Leva Patels, closely followed by Lohanas from Saurashtra. Gujarati Rajputs of different regional backgrounds are affiliated with several independent British organizations dependent on a caste, such as Shree Maher Samaj UK and Gujarati Arya Kshatriya Mahasabha-UK.
Endogamy remains important to Gujarati Muslims in the UK as there are marital ministries specifically designed for their community. Muslim society in Gujarati in Great Britain has the custom of Jamat Bandi maintain, which literally means community solidarity. This system is the traditional expression of communal solidarity. Its purpose is to regulate community affairs and to impose sanctions against violations of local law. Gujarati Muslim communities such as Ismāʿīlī, Khoja, Dawoodi Bohra, Sunni Bohra, and Memon have caste associations called Jamats that run mosques and community centers for their respective communities.
India, which became the dominant IT powerhouse in the 1990s, has sparked waves of new immigration to the UK from Gujaratis and other Indians with software skills.
In 2005 the Gujarat Studies Association was founded to raise awareness of research on the Gujaratis - its patron is Lord Bhikhu Parekh.
Two Gujarati business groups, the Palanpuri Jains and the Kathiawadi Patels from Surat, dominate the Belgian diamond industry. They have largely ousted the Orthodox Jewish community that previously ruled this industry in Belgium.
The takeover of the Portuguese Goa by India in 1961 made life difficult for the Indian population in the then Portuguese colony of Mozambique. Mozambique's independence, as in other African countries, resulted in many Gujaratis moving to Portugal. Many Hindu Gujaratis have moved to the UK from Portugal since the 1990s.
Canada, like its southern neighbor, is home to a large Gujarati community. According to the 2016 census, there are 122,460 Gujaratis of different religious backgrounds in Canada. Most of them live in Toronto and its suburbs - home to the second largest Gujarati community in North America after the metropolitan area of New York. Gujarati Hindus are the second largest linguistic / religious group in Canada's Indian community after Punjabi Sikhs, and Toronto hosts the largest Navratri raas garba festival in North America. The Muslim Ismaili Khoja form a significant part of the Canadian diaspora, the number of which is estimated at around 80,000. Most of them came to Canada as refugees or immigrants from Uganda and other East African countries in the 1970s.
Notable Gujarati Canadians include Naheed Nenshi (36th Mayor of Calgary), Bharat Masrani (CEO of TD Bank Group), Zain Verjee (CNN journalist), Ali Velshi (former CNN, current MSNBC journalist), Rizwan Manji (Canadian actor ) and Avan Jogia (Canadian actor), Richie Mehta (Canadian film director), Nazneen Contractor (Canadian actress), Ishu Patel (BAFTA-winning animation director), Arif Virani (MP for Parkdale-High Park), Rahim Jaffer (MP for Edmonton- Strathcona), Omar Sachedina (CTV newscaster) and Prashant Pathak (investor and philanthropist).
Former British colonies in East Africa had many residents of South Asian descent. Primary immigration was mainly from Gujarat and to a lesser extent Punjab. They were brought there from India by the British Empire to do office work in the imperial service or unskilled and semi-skilled manual work such as construction or farm work. In the 1890s, 32,000 British Indian workers were indentured to what was then the British East African colonies to work on the construction of the Uganda Railway, which began in the Kenyan port city of Mombasa and in Kisumu on the Kenyan side of Lake Victoria ended. Most of the surviving Indians returned home, but 6,724 people decided to stay in the African Great Lakes after the line was completed.
Many Asians, especially the Gujaratis, were involved in trading in these regions. This included gujaratis of all religions as well as many of the castes and quoms. Since the representation of the Indians in these professions was high, stereotyping of Indians as shopkeepers was widespread in Kenya, Uganda and Tanganyika. A number of people worked for the UK-run banks. They also worked in skilled jobs as managers, teachers and administrators. Gujarati and other South Asians had a significant impact on the economy, accounting for 1% of the population while receiving a fifth of the national income. In Uganda, for example, the Mehta and Madhvani families controlled most of the manufacturing companies. Fenced ethnic communities served elite health and school services. In addition, the tariff system in Uganda was historically geared towards the economic interests of South Asian traders. One of the oldest overseas Jain diaspora was Gujarat. Their number was estimated at 45,000 when the East African countries gained independence in the early 1960s. Most of the members of this community were members of the Gujarati-speaking Halari Visa Oshwal Jain community, originally from the Jamnagar area of Saurashtra.
The East African countries gained independence from Great Britain in the early 1960s. At the time, most of the Gujarati and other Asians chose to remain as British subjects. The African politicians of the time accused the Asians of economic exploitation and introduced a policy of Africanization. The 1968 Uganda Committee for "Africanization in Trade and Industry" made far-reaching indophobic proposals. A system of work and trade permits was introduced in 1969 to limit the role of Indians in economic and professional activities. Indians were separated and discriminated against in all areas of life. In the mid-1960s, many Asians saw the writing on the wall and moved to either the UK or India. However, the restrictive British immigration policy halted a mass exodus of East African Asians until Idi Amin came to power in 1971. He took advantage of the already existing indophobia and spread propaganda against Indians by stereotyping the Indian minority and making them a scapegoat. Indians have been stereotyped as "traders only" and "inbreeding" of their profession. Indians have been referred to as "dukawallas" (a professional term that degenerated into an anti-Indian arc in Amin's day) and stereotyped as "greedy, indulgent", devoid of any racial identity or loyalty, but "always cheating, conspiring and planning" around to undermine Uganda. Amin used this propaganda to justify a "de-Indianization" campaign that eventually led to the displacement and ethnic cleansing of Uganda's Indian minority.
Gujarati and other Indians moved to the colony of Kenya in the late 19th century when the British colonial authorities began building the railways to open up the country. In port cities like Mombasa on the Kenyan coast, however, there was a small merchant colony hundreds of years earlier. The immigrants who arrived with the British were the first to open stores in rural Kenya a century ago. These dukawalas or shopkeepers were mainly Gujarati (mainly Jains and Hindus and a minority of Muslims). In the decades that followed, the population, mainly Gujarati, but also a considerable number of Punjabi, increased in size. The population began to shrink after Kenya gained independence in the 1960s. At that time, the majority of the Gujaratis opted for British citizenship and eventually moved there, particularly to cities like Leicester or the London suburbs. Famous Kenyans of Gujarati heritage who contributed significantly to the development of East Africa include Thakkar Bapa, Manu Chandaria, Atul Shah, Baloobhai Patel, Bhimji Depar Shah (Forbes), Naushad Merali (Forbes) and Indian philanthropist, Alibhai Mulla Jeevanjee who played a great Role in the development of present-day Kenya during colonial rule.
Uganda is home to a small community of people of Indian origin, but the community is far smaller than it was before 1972, when the Ugandan ruler Idi Amin expelled most Asians, including Gujaratis. In the late 19th century, mainly Sikhs were contracted for three years with the help of the British Imperial Contractor Alibhai Mulla Jeevanjee to build the Uganda Railway from Mombasa to Kisumu in 1901 and to Kampala in 1931. Some died, others died. Returned to India after their contracts ended, but few chose to stay. They were joined by Gujarati traders, so-called "passenger Indians", both Hindu and Muslim free migrants who came to serve the economic needs of the identified workers and to take advantage of economic opportunities.
After the 1972 expulsion, most of the Indians and Gujaratis emigrated to Great Britain. Due to the efforts of the Aga Khan, many refugees from Khoja Nizari Ismaili from Uganda have been offered asylum in Canada.
Indians have a long history in Tanzania, starting with the arrival of the Gujarati traders in the 19th century. There are currently over 50,000 people of Indian origin in Tanzania. Many of them are traders and control a significant part of the Tanzanian economy. They came to gradually control the trade in Zanzibar. Many of the buildings erected at that time are still in Stone Town, the island's central trading point.
The Indian community in South Africa is more than 150 years old and is concentrated in and around the city of Durban. The vast majority of the Gujarati immigrant pioneers who came in the second half of the 19th century were Passenger indians who paid for their own travel tariff and transportation to come and settle in South Africa to seek new trade and career opportunities were treated as British subjects, as opposed to the fate of a class of Indian indented workers who worked in appalling conditions Work on the sugar cane plantations of the Natal Colony. Passenger Indians, who originally operated in Durban, expanded inland into the South African Republic (Transvaal) and established churches in settlements on the main road between Johannesburg and Durban. After wealthy Muslim merchants from Gujarati in Natal experienced discrimination due to repressive colonial legislation, they sought the help of a young lawyer, Mahatma Gandhi, to represent a businessman from Memon. Umar Hajee Ahmed Jhaveri was elected as the first President of the South African Indian Congress. Indians in South Africa could traditionally be forked either as identified workers (mostly from Tamil Nadu, with lesser amounts from UP and Bihar) or as merchants (exclusively from Gujarat).
The peculiarities of the South African Gujarati diaspora include high numbers of southern gujaratis and a disproportionately high number of Surti Sunni Vohra and Khatiawari memons. After democracy, significant numbers of new immigrants have settled in various parts of South Africa, including many newer Gujaratis.
Indians have played an important role in South Africa's anti-apartheid movement. Many were jailed with Nelson Mandela after the Rivonia Trial, and many were martyred in an attempt to end racial discrimination. Notable South African Indians with Gujarati heritage are Marxist freedom fighters such as Ahmed Timol (activist), Yusuf Dadoo (activist), Ahmed Kathrada (activist), Amina Cachalia (activist) and Dullah Omar (activist) as well as Ahmed Deedat (missionary), Imran Garda (Al Jazeera English) and Hashim Amla (cricketer).
In the second half of the 19th century, many Gujarati Hindus of the Vaniya community emigrated to southern Mozambique, particularly to the provinces of Inhambane and Lourenço Marques, to do business. This was followed by the migration of Hindus of various handicraft castes from Diu to the region. Later in the 19th century, the immigration restrictions imposed by the colonial authorities in neighboring South Africa and the Boer Republic made Mozambique the preferred destination for many Gujarati Hindus from the Saurashtra (viz., Rajkot and Porbandar) and Surat regions.
The takeover of the Portuguese Goa by India in 1961 made life difficult for the Indian population in the then Portuguese colony of Mozambique. Mozambique's independence, as in other African countries, resulted in many Gujaratis moving to Portugal.
Oman, which occupies a strategically important position at the mouth of the Persian Gulf, was the main focus of trade and commerce for medieval Gujarati merchants for much of its history, and Gujaratis, along with various other ethnic groups, founded and settled its capital port city, Muscat. Some of the earliest Indian immigrants to settle in Oman were the Bhatias of Kutch, who had a strong presence in Oman since the 16th century. At the turn of the 19th century, Gujaratis had enough influence that Faisal bin Turki, the great-grandfather of the current ruler, spoke Gujarati and Swahili along with his Arabic mother tongue and Oman's Sultan Syed Said (1791-1856) was persuaded to change his Capital from Muscat to Zanzibar, more than two thousand miles from mainland Arabia, on the recommendation of the Shivji Topan and Bhimji families, who lent money to the Sultan. In modern times, the business tycoon Kanaksi Khimji from the famous Khimji family of Gujarat was bestowed the title of sheikh by the sultan, the first use of the title for a member of the Hindu community. The Muscati Mahajan is one of the oldest trade associations that was founded more than a century ago.
South East Asia
Gujaratis had a flourishing trade with Southeast Asia in the 15th and 16th centuries and played a crucial role in establishing Islam in the region. Miller (2010) proposed a theory that the indigenous scripts of Sumatra (Indonesia), Sulawesi (Indonesia) and the Philippines descended from an early form of the Gujarati script. Tomé Pires reported the presence of a thousand Gujaratis in Malacca, Malaysia before 1512. The Gujarati language is still spoken in Singapore and Malaysia.
The Gujarati community in Hong Kong is tiny, but has nonetheless contributed to Hong Kong's progress and growth over the years.
Hong Kong University: In 1911, Sir Hormusjee Naorojee Mody, a businessman from Gujarati Parsi, Hong Kong donated HK $ 150,000 for the construction and HK $ 30,000 for other costs of building Hong Kong University.
Star Ferry: Dorabjee Naorojee Mithaiwala was founded in 1888 by the Kowloon Ferry Company to transport passengers and cargo (especially bread) between Kowloon and Hong Kong Island. The company was renamed Star Ferry in 1898, which now carries passengers across Hong Kong.
Ruttonjee Hospital: Jehangir Hormusjee Ruttonjee, born into a Gujarati Parsi family in Mumbai, moved to Hong Kong in 1892 to join his father. Ruttonjee donated a lot of money to build the Ruttonjee Sanatorium, now Ruttonjee Hospital, to fight tuberculosis.
Gujaratis also dominate the diamond trade in the city. As of 2012, 350 diamond companies in Hong Kong were owned by Gujaratis.
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