The arts Is art discovered or created

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Renaissance means rebirth. What is meant is antiquity. This is not limited to art: the highly developed sciences, ancient law and the state, all of this is rediscovered and studied in the Renaissance.

As of June 30, 2017

Florence, the cloth merchant metropolis of Italy, is at the center of these developments. The Medicis, a family of cloth merchants and bankers who have made money, rule here. The Medicis promote the arts and commission well-known builders, sculptors and painters with buildings, sculptures and paintings.

The spatial revolution in painting

The landmark of Florence

One of them is Filippo Brunelleschi. The architect not only built the dome of the Florentine Cathedral, he also developed the central perspective - and thus revolutionized painting. He breaks down the model he wants to draw into squares of the same size with the help of grid lines. He then transfers his template into the corresponding grid of his drawing, box by box. This has the advantage that the spatial perspective is transferred to the paper at the same time. Brunelleschi showed this invention to his friend the painter Masaccio in 1425. The architect helps him develop the three-dimensional Trinity fresco - the first painting to be created according to the laws of central perspective.

The human being at the center of art

Like Brunelleschi, other Florentine builders also deal with the architectural treatise of Vitruvius, which was active in Roman antiquity. Above all, they adopt the order of the columns, for example to structure the facades of the palaces. Leonardo da Vinci also uses Vitruvius' treatise for his study of proportions. Da Vinci recognizes that all parts of the human body have a certain relationship to one another and are integrated into a geometric system. He conducts anatomical studies and incorporates this knowledge into his work. His most famous painting, the Mona Lisa, still influences many artists today. But not only this portrait shows how much man, as God created him, is at the center of art. The two David statues by Donatello and Michelangelo move people naked into the open space as in antiquity - unthinkable in the Middle Ages.

The artist at the center of art

In the late Renaissance, also known as Mannerism, the lifelike depiction of the human being took a back seat. Rather, the artist's desire to immortalize himself can be seen in the Mannerist works - through idiosyncratic style. This manifests itself in grimaceous faces, overstretched limbs, and unnatural postures. This tendency to exaggerate already heralds the baroque era.

In short The style characteristics of the Renaissance

  • The human being moves back into the focus of art, as in antiquity.
  • The spatial perspective revolutionizes painting.
  • Sculptures stand free in space, are no longer part of buildings.