Who are some active environmentalists in Europe

The European Parliament,

- having regard to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and the relevant United Nations human rights treaties, conventions and instruments, in particular the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP), adopted on 13 September 2007 by the General Assembly of the United Nations, as well as the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (the Charter), which stipulates that all people have the right to fully exercise their human rights and fundamental freedoms without discrimination,

- having regard to the 1998 United Nations Declaration on Human Rights Defenders,

- having regard to United Nations General Assembly resolution A / RES / 53/144 of 8 March 1999 adopting the Declaration on Human Rights Defenders,

- having regard to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), adopted in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and signed by 168 countries, and its resolution of 16 January 2020 on the 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP15) of the Convention on Biological Diversity (1),

- having regard to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on September 25, 2015, and the Sustainable Development Goals,

- having regard to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which entered into force on March 21, 1994, the Kyoto Protocol of December 11, 1997 and the Paris Agreement of April 22, 2016,

- having regard to United Nations Human Rights Council resolution 40/11 of 21 March 2019 on recognizing the contribution of human rights defenders who advocate for environmental rights to the exercise of human rights, environmental protection and sustainable development,

- having regard to Report 31/52 of February 1, 2016 and Report A / 74/161 of 2019 by the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the issue of human rights obligations related to a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment,

- having regard to United Nations Human Rights Council resolution 41/21 of July 12, 2019 on human rights and the climate,

- having regard to the report of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) of 10 December 2015 on climate change and human rights and the UNEP definition of defenders of environmental human rights, “Who are environmental defenders?”,

- having regard to the report of the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty and Human Rights of 17 July 2019 on Climate Change and Poverty,

- having regard to the 2019 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Climate Change, Desertification, Land Degradation, Sustainable Land Management, Food Security and Greenhouse Gas Flows in Terrestrial Ecosystems,

- having regard to the June 2020 report of the United Nations entitled “Gender, Climate & amp; Security: Sustaining Inclusive Peace on the Frontlines of Climate Change ", jointly organized by UNEP, UN Women, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the United Nations Department Nations for Political and Peacebuilding Affairs (UNDPPA),

- having regard to the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights,

- having regard to Article 37 of the Charter, which obliges the EU to mainstream a high level of environmental protection and the improvement of the quality of the environment in its policies,

- based on the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), in particular on the fifth part entitled "The Union's External Action" and its Titles I, II, III, IV and V,

- having regard to the joint Commission communication of 25 March 2020 entitled "EU Action Plan for Human Rights and Democracy 2020-2024" (JOIN (2020) 0005),

- having regard to the Council conclusions of 15 May 2017 on indigenous peoples and the joint working document of 17 October 2016 entitled “Implementing EU External Policy on Indigenous Peoples” (SWD (2016) 0340) as well as the Council conclusions of 19 November 2018 on water diplomacy, of 17 June 2019 on EU measures to strengthen rules-based multilateralism and of 20 January 2020 on climate diplomacy,

- having regard to the EU human rights guidelines on safe drinking water and sanitation adopted by the Council on 17 June 2019 and its guidelines on the protection of human rights defenders,

- having regard to its previous resolutions on cases of human rights violations and violations of democracy and the rule of law,

- having regard to its resolution of 13 September 2017 on corruption and human rights in third countries (2),

- having regard to the report of the European Environment Agency (EEA) of 4 December 2019 entitled "European environment - state and outlook 2020: knowledge for transition to a sustainable Europe" the transition to a sustainable Europe),

- having regard to Implementing Principle 10 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development of 1992, the aim of which is to ensure that everyone has access to information, the ability to participate in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters, so that everyone has the right to a healthy and sustainable environment is preserved for current and future generations,

- having regard to the Communication from the Commission of 20 June 2020 entitled 'EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030: More Space for Nature in Our Lives' (COM (2020) 0380), of 11 December 2019 entitled' The European Green Deal ”(COM (2019) 0640) and of 23 July 2019 entitled“ Stepping up EU action to protect and restore the world's forests ”(COM (2019) 0352),

- having regard to its resolution of 15 January 2020 on the European Green Deal (3),

- having regard to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's 2019 report entitled "The State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture",

- having regard to the significant risk of biodiversity loss described in the Global Assessment Report of the World Biodiversity Council (IPBES) of 31 May 2019 on biodiversity and ecosystem services,

- having regard to its resolution of 3 July 2018 on violations of indigenous peoples' rights in the world, including through land grabbing (4),

- having regard to its resolution of 17 April 2020 on coordinated EU action to combat the COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences (5),

- having regard to Rule 54 of its Rules of Procedure,

- having regard to the opinions of the Committee on Development, the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety and the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs,

- having regard to the report of the Committee on Foreign Affairs (A9-0039 / 2021),

A. whereas all persons, local communities and population groups have the right to fully enjoy their human rights as enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights;


C. whereas the United Nations, along with other international organizations and experts, is calling for the right to a healthy and safe environment to be recognized as a universal right;

D. whereas the fight against climate change raises questions of equity and fairness, both at international and national levels and between generations; whereas access to justice in environmental matters, access to information and public participation in decision-making processes are covered by Implementing Principle 10 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, the Aarhus Convention (6) of 25 June 1998 and the Escazú (7) dated March 4, 2018;

E. whereas environmental degradation, climate change and unsustainable development are among the most pressing and serious threats to the ability of present and future generations to enjoy many human rights; whereas the parties to the UNFCCC have an obligation to take effective action to mitigate climate change, improve the adaptability of vulnerable populations and prevent the foreseeable loss of life;

F. whereas the parties to the UNFCCC have an obligation to collect and disseminate information on environmental impacts and to encourage public participation in decision-making processes;

G. whereas, when looking at climate change from a human rights perspective, there is a focus on the principles of universality and non-discrimination, emphasizing that the rights are guaranteed to all people in the world, including vulnerable groups, indiscriminately such as in particular ethnic origin, skin color, gender, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status;

H. whereas governments, societies and individuals have an ethical and intergenerational responsibility to act increasingly proactive in politics and cooperation, with the aim of agreeing on international guidelines to preserve the planet for present and future generations protect and preserve so that these generations can fully enjoy their human rights and the negative effects of climate change are mitigated;

I.whereas it is widely recognized that the human rights obligations and responsibilities of states and the private sector have real implications for climate change; whereas failure to protect the environment and those who work to protect it is contrary to legally binding human rights obligations of states and a violation of certain rights, such as the right to a healthy environment or the right to Life, could represent; whereas an increasing number of business activities and operations in third countries have serious human rights and environmental implications;

J. whereas the Paris Agreement is the first international treaty to explicitly recognize the link between climate protection and human rights, so that states and private companies can be urged to reduce their emissions by using existing human rights-related legal instruments to reduce; whereas the Paris Agreement does not contain any specific instruments to hold state actors and companies accountable for the effects they cause on climate change and the exercise of human rights;

K. whereas the European Court of Human Rights has clearly established that various types of environmental damage can lead to the violation of essential human rights, such as the right to life, the right to private and family life, the right to uninterrupted use of the home and the prohibition of inhuman and degrading treatment;

L. whereas climate justice seeks to address the climate crisis through human rights norms in order to bridge the accountability gap in climate governance by bringing climate change-related litigation against states and corporations so that they can To be held accountable for their actions in connection with the protection of nature for its own sake, and to enable present and future generations a dignified and healthy life;

M. whereas a number of pending cases based on failure or inaction by individuals, states and companies in addressing the challenges of climate change have identified human rights violations and paved the way for those responsible to be held accountable;

N. whereas, as a result of increased competition for natural resources by private companies, sometimes in complicity with governments, environmentalists and indigenous communities who advocate the protection of their ancestral lands are at the forefront of environmental protection and are therefore persecuted;

O. whereas the impact of climate change on human rights is likely to affect not just the most vulnerable but the whole world; whereas the most vulnerable communities and countries that cause the least pollution and environmental degradation suffer most from the direct effects of climate change; whereas pollution-related illnesses and premature deaths are already three times the number of AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria combined, putting the right to life, a healthy environment and clean air at risk; whereas natural disasters such as floods, tropical storms and long periods of drought are becoming more common and have harmful effects on food security in the countries of the Global South and on the enjoyment of many human rights;

P. whereas environmental justice is part of social justice and that the consequences of climate change are asymmetrical and its negative effects are devastating for present and future generations, especially in developing countries; whereas developing countries are particularly hard hit by climate change, exacerbating existing inequality in society and the economy, so that vulnerable groups suffer disproportionately from its negative effects;


R. whereas the restrictions and exit restrictions imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic have resulted in lower transparency and surveillance of human rights violations and increased political intimidation and digital surveillance, while at the same time increasing access to justice and the opportunities for environmentalists, local Actors, indigenous communities and others have been restricted from effectively participating in decision-making processes whereas exit and sanitary restrictions have restricted indigenous communities in their ability to patrol and protect their areas; whereas such restrictions should be based on legitimate and democratic legislation; whereas the ability of the international community to monitor and investigate suspected violations has been severely limited by the pandemic;

S. whereas people's adaptability to climate change is closely linked to their access to basic human rights and the health of the ecosystems on which they depend for their livelihoods and wellbeing; whereas mitigation and adaptation measures, for example related to the access to and use of natural resources such as land, water and forests and the relocation of people, can also have a negative impact on the exercise of human rights; whereas developing countries and regions are estimated to bear an estimated 75-80% of the costs of climate change, according to the 17 July 2019 report on climate change and poverty by the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty and Human Rights;

T. whereas, as a result of climate change, human development could decline if agricultural productivity falls, water and food insecurity rises and the risk of extreme natural disasters rises, thereby collapsing ecosystems and exacerbating health risks;

U. whereas, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), climate change is expected to contribute to around 250,000 additional deaths annually from malnutrition, malaria, diarrhea and thermal stress from 2030 onwards; whereas, according to the World Food Program, climate shocks are one of the top three causes of food insecurity in the world; whereas in 2019 almost 750 million people - almost a tenth of the world's population - were highly exposed to food insecurity;

V. whereas the climate crisis is widening the gender gap, as extreme weather events, natural disasters and long-term environmental damage endanger homes, livelihoods, social networks and the infrastructure of communities, which disproportionately affects women and girls, including in terms of shape an increase in unpaid care and housework by women, the increased spread of gender-based violence and the marginalization of education and participation of women and leadership by women;

W. whereas violence against environmentalists, especially women, and environmental rights defenders and their lawyers is now well documented, including through media and social media coverage; whereas women environmentalists suffer from gender-based forms of violence and intimidation which are of great concern;


Y. whereas environmentalists have been the victims of killings, kidnappings, torture, gender-based violence, threats, harassment, intimidation, smear campaigns, criminalization, legal harassment, evictions and displacement in recent years;

Z. whereas the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights Defenders has expressed concern about human rights defenders in all countries, who have been subject to restrictions on freedom of movement, assembly, expression and association and are subject to misrepresentation Allegations, unfair trials, arbitrary arrests and detentions, and torture and execution;

AA. whereas the Global Witness report shows that 212 land and environmental activists were murdered in 2019, an increase of 30% compared to 2018; whereas 40% of the victims were indigenous peoples and traditional landowners, and more than two thirds of the murders occurred in Latin America;

FROM. whereas indigenous peoples enjoy specific rights to the protection of the environment, land and resources under Article 7 of the International Labor Organization (ILO) Convention on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples of 1989; whereas Article 29 of UNDRIP 2007 provides that indigenous peoples have the right to preserve and protect the environment and the productive capacity of their land or their territories and resources;

AC. whereas the Escazú Agreement is the first regional agreement on access to information, public participation and access to justice in environmental matters in Latin America and the Caribbean; whereas the Escazú Agreement, in force since 1Can be ratified September 2019, is the first treaty that establishes the right to a healthy environment (Article 4); whereas the Escazú Agreement, which reaffirms the importance of regional cooperation, can serve as an inspiration for other regions facing similar challenges; whereas the Aarhus Convention establishes a number of rights for individuals and civil society organizations in relation to the environment, including access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters; whereas the Parties to the Convention must take the necessary measures to ensure that public authorities (at national, regional or local level) actually contribute to making these rights effective;

On the impact of climate change on human rights



3. Stresses that human development opportunities are essential for all; emphasizes that in international raw material supply chains, both in the conventional energy sector and in the area of ​​environmentally friendly energy from renewable sources, there is a risk of human rights violations, e. B. through child labor in cobalt mines, which supply the global value chain for lithium batteries; Calls on the Commission to consider the human rights implications when considering solutions for energy and transport technologies in the Union;

4. Points out that water scarcity as one of the consequences of climate change affects many people around the world; Calls on the EU and its Member States to address water scarcity as a key priority on their legislative and political agenda; Points out that poor management of land and natural resources contributes to the emergence of new conflicts and prevents the settlement of existing ones; Reiterates that competition for dwindling resources is increasing and is being exacerbated by environmental degradation, population growth and climate change;


6. Calls on the Commission to ensure that the concrete commitments already set out in the EU Action Plan for Human Rights and Democracy 2020-2024 in the areas of human rights, the environment and climate change are effectively implemented and monitored and that a gender-specific implementation of the plan is implemented Perspective is taken into account;

7. Supports the mandate of the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Human Rights and the Environment to work for the worldwide recognition of the right to live in a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment as a human right; calls on the Union and the Member States to support the global recognition of this right at the next United Nations General Assembly; believes that this recognition should act as a catalyst for stronger environmental policy and law enforcement, public participation in environmental decision-making, access to information and justice, and better outcomes for people and the planet;

8. Urges the Commission to continue to closely monitor the human rights situation and climate change and to monitor progress in integrating and mainstreaming human rights in all aspects of climate protection at national and international level in close cooperation with the United Nations Human Rights Council or the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights; in this context, calls on the Union to take steps to include the right to a safe and healthy environment in the Charter and to fully comply with Article 37 thereof; stresses in this connection the importance of close cooperation with states and all relevant institutional actors involved in the proper implementation of human rights and environmental provisions;

9. Stresses that everyone, regardless of person, has the fundamental right to a safe, healthy and sustainable environment and a stable climate and that this right must be implemented through ambitious policies and fully enforced through the judicial systems at all levels;

10. Believes that the inclusion of the human right to a healthy environment in key environmental agreements and procedures is essential in order to fully respond to the COVID-19 pandemic and to recreate the relationship between humans and nature design that will reduce risks and prevent future damage from environmental degradation;

11. Calls on the EU and its Member States, with the active support of the EU Special Representative for Human Rights, to take a determined initiative to tackle the impunity of environmental crimes at global level and to pave the way for new negotiations between the parties in the International Criminal Court (ICC) to prepare to recognize “ecocide” as an international crime within the meaning of the Rome Statute; calls on the Commission, as well as the Vice-President of the Commission and High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (HR / VP), to set up a program to build the capacities of the national courts of the Member States in these areas;


13. Calls for the gender perspective to be mainstreamed into sustainable development policies and programs so that the rights of women and girls - including sexual and reproductive health and related rights and the necessary health services - promote gender equality and climate justice are consistently taken into account in all strategy programs;

14. (8) Any individual or group who believes that their rights may have been violated by such activities and that they may be entitled to legal redress;

15. Strongly supports the mainstreaming of human rights in the global post-2020 framework for biodiversity, in line with the recent Commission communication entitled 'EU Biodiversity Strategy 2030 - Bringing nature back to our lives'; Considers that, with a view to mainstreaming human rights into the global biodiversity framework for the post-2020 period, new goals should address the recognition and implementation of the right to a clean, healthy, safe and sustainable environment at national and global levels ;

16. Reaffirms the importance of protecting the Arctic from the effects of climate change and underlines the need for an EU strategy for the Arctic;


18. Supports a human rights-based approach to managing migration in third countries and taking into account any deficits in protection of human rights in the context of migration; recalls in this regard existing instruments for legal channels and believes that more such instruments should be introduced for vulnerable persons; advocates identifying and encouraging best practices related to human rights commitments and pledges that promote and strengthen environmental policy-making at Union and international level;

19. Insists that the rights of all people must be fulfilled without any discrimination based on where they live or their social situation, especially those most exposed to the negative effects of climate change; Considers it very important to ensure and facilitate public participation in decisions affecting the livelihoods of vulnerable groups;

20. Points out that inequality, violence against and discrimination against women are exacerbated by climate change; Calls on the EU and its Member States to design and implement strategies with a cross-cutting gender perspective in the areas of trade, cooperation, climate change and external action in order to promote the empowerment of women and their participation in decision-making and the specific constraints faced by women Girls and women are exposed to recognition;

21. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to strengthen the role and capacity of regional human rights bodies and other mechanisms to address the link between climate change and human rights, in order to promote environmental rights and the protection of environmental rights defenders; In particular, calls on the Commission to launch a program in support of the Escazú Agreement, which aims, among other things, to assist the States parties in ratifying and implementing the Agreement, to help civil society deal with the Agreement and to contribute to its implementation and to support the voluntary fund set up under the agreement;

To the measures against the COVID-19 pandemic

22. Stresses that the global COVID-19 pandemic clearly shows that environmental degradation is creating the conditions for an increase in zoonoses with serious health, social, economic and political consequences; Calls on the Commission and the Member States to commit to taking environmental rights and the defense of those who protect them into account in all action against the COVID-19 pandemic; Calls on Member States and other stakeholders to take into account the Commission's global mechanism for monitoring the impact of COVID-19 on democracy and human rights;

23. Is deeply concerned that a global recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic could reduce, delay or shift states' commitments to international climate protection goals and human rights norms; Calls on the EU and its Member States to ensure that the measures envisaged for economic recovery are fully in line with the promotion and protection of human rights under Article 21 of the Lisbon Treaty, as well as with environmental protection and sustainable development;

24. Calls on the HR / VP, the Commission and the Member States to advocate effective action against the COVID-19 crisis that fully recognizes the very important importance of the right to a safe, clean, healthy and Respect, protect and achieve a sustainable environment in order to prevent future environmental and health crises that could endanger fundamental human rights; Calls on the Commission and the EEAS to increase their climate and environmental targets in the face of the COVID-19 crisis and to develop an ambitious strategic approach to climate diplomacy;

25this concerned that the emergency and containment measures taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic may have been abused by political bodies, the security forces and non-state armed groups in several parts of the world as an excuse to target human rights defenders and environmental and human rights defenders To hinder land guards in their work or to intimidate them or even to kill them; Notes, in this regard, that indigenous rights defenders are also overly vulnerable to COVID-19 due to poor health infrastructure in remote areas and government neglect;

26. Points out that the COVID-19 pandemic is threatening the food security and nutrition of millions of people around the world as global food supply chains are affected, at a time when food security and food systems are due to Climate change and natural disasters are already under pressure; Stresses that the pandemic-induced crisis could serve as a turning point in rebalancing and reshaping food systems, making them more inclusive, sustainable and resilient;

About human rights defenders who advocate environmental rights and the role of indigenous peoples



29. Recommends that Member States that have not yet ratified ILO Convention No. 169 on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples to do so;

30. Calls on the Commission to ensure that the EU does not support initiatives and projects that result in illegal land grabbing, illegal logging and deforestation, or that have similar harmful effects on the environment; Condemns all attempts to deregulate environmental protection and the protection of human rights in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic and other crises;

31. Strongly condemns the increasing number of cases around the world in which indigenous people, human rights defenders campaigning for environmental rights, and land guards are murdered, subjected to defamation, prosecuted, criminalized, imprisoned, harassed and intimidated and calls for those responsible to be held accountable;

32. Emphasizes that environmental rights defenders face additional challenges at work, in their communities and at home as they are victims of or are exposed to gender-based threats and violence; Recalls that women human rights defenders are at greater risk than their male counterparts of falling victim to certain forms of violence and other violations, as well as prejudice, exclusion and rejection;

33. Calls on the EU and its Member States to support all human rights defenders, in particular environmental rights defenders and their legal representatives, and, if necessary, to draw attention to their cases; Is convinced that support for environmental rights defenders should be increased and that reprisals or abuses directed against them by companies or state actors should be condemned by the EU in public statements and, if necessary, in the course of action on the ground; Reaffirms its position that the EEAS, the Commission and the Member States must invest in and strengthen specific gender-sensitive, accessible protection mechanisms and programs for environmental rights defenders, including local and indigenous defenders, and that environmental rights defenders must be involved in all infringement investigations;

34. (9) to monitor and ensure the full application of the Directive by the Member States; Considers freedom of information to be an important tool for providing people who could be affected by the consequences of climate change with early and appropriate information about the harmful effects of climate change and the associated adaptation measures; calls for freedom of information to be respected;

35. Notes that the actions of environmentalists are crucial as they seek, develop and disseminate viable solutions and mechanisms for the prevention, resilience and adaptation to climate change for the people living in affected areas;

36. Calls on the Commission to pay particular attention to the differentiated protection needs of women human rights defenders and to acknowledge their role as key actors for change, in particular climate protection; Considers, in this context, the need to support capacity building and empower women as teachers and drivers of change, and to ensure adequate funding for the relevant organizations; notes that women who lead communities and environmentalists are often oppressed or even murdered, such as the brave women nominated for the European Parliament's Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, in particular Marielle Franco from Brazil, who was murdered in 2018 , and Berta Cáceres from Honduras, who was murdered in 2016;

37. Calls on the EU and its Member States to demand and to ensure that the right to free, prior and fully informed consent of indigenous peoples in all agreements or development projects affecting land, territories or natural Affect the wealth of indigenous peoples without being enforced; Stresses the importance of promoting indigenous peoples' rights and their traditional practices for achieving sustainable development, combating climate change and conserving and restoring biodiversity, while also ensuring that adequate safeguards are in place;

38. Calls on the Commission and the Council to use all the instruments at their disposal, as well as the provisions on the implementation and enforcement of human rights in the framework of the Union's foreign policy and association agreements, in order to provide effective support and protection for human rights and environmental rights defenders in the neighborhood To use the EU and to call on the EU accession countries to concretely approximate the values ​​and norms of the Union;

39. Calls for an annex to the EU guidelines on the protection of human rights defenders to be adopted, which addresses the specific challenges and needs of environmentalists and EU policies in this area; Considers it very important to continue the ProtectDefenders.eu project with increased funding and other existing EU instruments in support of human rights defenders;

40.Calls for an EU list of priority countries to be adopted where the EEAS, the Commission and the Member States step up their support for environmental rights defenders and work with local authorities to introduce or improve safeguards and specific legislation, in which the term “environmentalists” is defined, their work is recognized and their protection is ensured; insists that this list of priority countries must be drawn up by the EEAS in close consultation with stakeholders and Parliament and updated annually; also calls on the HR / VP to submit an annual public report on the actions taken in the priority countries and on the protection of environmentalists around the world;

41. Urges the United Nations to increase its commitment to protecting global ecosystems and protecting the environment, particularly where climate change is having a serious impact on indigenous and local communities; calls on the EU, therefore, to press ahead with an initiative at United Nations level for international observers to monitor serious environmental damage, serious environmental crises or situations where environmental rights defenders are most at risk, and the authorities in creating a protective environment for them Involve and support people;

42. Calls on the Commission and the Member States, in the context of political dialogue, to encourage the adoption of national action plans that create a safe and free environment for environmentalists by integrating a broader perspective of collective protection, which includes policies to legitimize Includes communities and groups committed to protecting the environment; Calls on the Commission to explicitly address the human rights of indigenous peoples and local communities under the Voluntary Partnership Agreements on Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT-VPA);

43. Recalls that, in accordance with the United Nations Declaration on Human Rights Defenders, States must protect biodiversity defenders as human rights defenders; expresses satisfaction with the design of international treaties, such as the Escazú Agreement, which is an important tool for Latin America and the Caribbean - the region where the highest number of environmental human rights defenders are killed;

To the UNFCCC, to justice and accountability

44. Regrets that the current nationally determined contributions, even if fully implemented by all states, would lead to a catastrophic global temperature increase of 3 ° C compared to pre-industrial levels, in violation of the Paris Agreement; warns that such a scenario would have extreme climatic and ecological effects and far-reaching impairments of human rights;

45.Welcomes the inclusion of human rights in the preamble to the Paris Agreement and calls for effective measures to respect and promote human rights obligations in the implementation of the Convention and in the implementation of climate protection measures; regrets, however, that there are no specific provisions that allow state actors and companies to be held accountable for human rights violations related to climate change;

46. ​​Urges the parties to the UNFCCC to further increase their climate change mitigation and adaptation goals in line with the goals of the Paris Agreement and to include the human rights dimension in their nationally determined contributions and adaptation communication; Calls on the UNFCCC Secretariat, in cooperation with the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, to develop guidelines on how the protection of human rights can be mainstreamed into nationally determined contributions and the Adaptation Communication; Calls on the Parties, with the full and effective participation of indigenous peoples, to revise the intended nationally determined contributions and the nationally determined contributions and to develop mechanisms to monitor the nationally determined contributions;

47. Stresses that the synergies in the context of reporting obligations on climate protection and human rights must be strengthened; Considers that the guidelines for the transparency framework of the Paris Agreement (Article 13) should ask the parties to provide information not only on greenhouse gas emissions, but also on whether climate policy is in line with other societal objectives and the existing legal framework is implemented and should therefore include information on best practice, including rights-based approaches to containment and adaptation, and support;

48.Urges the EU institutions to cooperate actively in promoting a human rights-based approach in ongoing international climate negotiations, in particular through the Sustainable Development Mechanism and other guidelines for mechanisms under Article 6 (4) of the Paris Agreement, ensure meaningful and informed participation of rightholders, adequate environmental and social guarantees and independent redress mechanisms; Stresses that the Sustainable Development Mechanism should aim to finance projects that benefit those most exposed to the effects of climate change and that projects funded under the Sustainable Development Mechanism undergo human rights impact assessments should, whereby only projects that have beneficial effects can be registered;

49. Calls on the Commission to develop eligibility criteria for EU grants that would enable non-governmental environmental organizations, which might otherwise not be eligible for funding due to their size, to have more inclusive access to finance;

50. Stresses that in order to ensure the accountability of all actors, new mechanisms such as the Sustainable Development Mechanism must include institutional safeguards and grievance mechanisms to ensure effective protection of rights;

51. Calls on the UNFCCC Secretariat to work with the parties to the Convention to develop a common legal framework for climate justice;

52. Points out that the global inventory referred to in Article 14 of the Paris Agreement should be used to review progress in integrating human rights and other principles into climate action; points out that civil society and intergovernmental organizations should be given the opportunity to contribute; Believes that the evaluation of the implementation of the Paris Agreement should help identify best practices and barriers to implementation and provide information for future nationally determined contributions and international cooperation;

53. Stresses that any effective rights-based climate action should guarantee free, active, meaningful and informed participation; recommends that the containment and adaptation plans should be publicly available, transparently funded and worked out with the affected and / or potentially affected groups, especially the most vulnerable groups;

54. Stresses that developing countries cannot tackle the effects of climate change on their own and that they often rely on international aid for their ability to cope with crises, adapt and anticipate the effects of climate change;

55. Reiterates its view that human rights norms and institutions, which are commonly used to fill the governance accountability gap, are in no way a substitute for effective action to prevent and remedy the damage caused by climate change; Considers that national human rights institutions (NHRIs) and civil society can play an effective role in national accountability and scrutiny mechanisms to ensure that those who suffer human rights abuses as a result of climate change have access to redress;

56. Considers that the EU must take active, strong and ambitious leadership in the preparations for the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP 26) and put human rights at the heart of international climate change policy in order to prevent irreversible damage avert present and future human development and present and future generations;

57. Acknowledges the active involvement and involvement of civil society, including non-governmental organizations and environmentalists, in promoting human rights-based climate change policies and calls on the EU to support such activities; Stresses the need to ensure civil society participation in the transparency framework under Article 13 of the Paris Agreement;

58. Takes note of the Commission's proposal for a regulation amending Regulation (EC) No 1367/2006 (10) (the so-called Aarhus Regulation) to improve the implementation of the Aarhus Convention at EU level ; also calls on the Member States to ensure that relevant EU legal acts (e.g. Directive 2011/92 / EU (11)) and international legally binding provisions (Aarhus Convention) are properly implemented in their legal systems in order to Ensure inclusive access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters;

59. Stresses that the activities of environmentalists should be fully aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals and that these goals should be systematically implemented at local, national and international levels;

60. Points out that Member States must legislate on companies so that companies do not cause human rights abuses, and that private actors and companies have an obligation to assess the impact of climate change on human rights in accordance with the United Nations Guiding Principles for Address business and human rights;

61. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to actively participate in the design, establishment and promotion of protection and accountability procedures in the internationally recognized bodies so that the structural changes envisaged in the climate policy strategies to drastically reduce emissions by 2030 actually take place designed, implemented and monitored in a manner that protects the rights of the people and communities concerned, including the right to work, and promotes fair and just working conditions; Stresses that ecological change should be fair and that nobody should be neglected;

62. Stresses the importance of corporate due diligence and sustainable accountability as an important and indispensable means of preventing and protecting against serious human rights and environmental violations; calls on the EU to support sustainable and responsible corporate governance as an important element of the European Green Deal; Calls on Member States to put in place effective regulatory measures to identify, assess, prevent, end, reduce, monitor, communicate, account for, address and remediate human rights violations, potential and / or actual, and businesses to be held accountable for ensuring that they exercise due diligence regarding the impact of climate change on human rights in accordance with the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights;


64. Considers it very important to fight corruption at global level as it undermines the enjoyment of human rights, has specific negative effects and the most disadvantaged, marginalized and vulnerable groups in society, such as women, children, people with disabilities , elderly people, the poor, indigenous peoples or people belonging to minorities, disproportionately affected, as this affects them, among other things equal access to natural resources, including land, is denied;

65. Calls on the Council and the EEAS to include crimes related to corruption in the list of criminal acts under the EU's global sanctions regime in the field of human rights, the so-called Magnitsky Law of the EU, and to ensure its swift adoption and implementation to care;

66.Considers that the current EU trade policy review should be used as an opportunity to redefine, promote and strengthen the protection of human rights in trade policy; Stresses that the sustainable development chapters in future trade agreements must fall under the dispute settlement mechanisms of those agreements;

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67. Instructs its President to present this resolution to the Council, the Commission, the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and Vice-President of the European Commission, the EU Special Representative for Human Rights and the governments and parliaments of the Member States and the United Nations Security Council, to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, the President of the 74th session of the United Nations General Assembly, the President of the United Nations Human Rights Council, the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Heads of EU Delegations.

(1) Texts adopted, P9_TA (2020) 0015.
(2) OJ C 337, 20.9.2018, p. 82.
(3) Texts adopted, P9_TA (2020) 0005.
(4) OJ C 118, 8.4.2020, p. 15.
(5) Texts adopted, P9_TA (2020) 0054.
(6) United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters, June 25, 1998.
(7) Regional Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters in Latin America and the Caribbean, March 4, 2018.
(8) Independent mechanism for accountability of European Bank for Reconstruction and Development projects and the European Investment Bank Group's complaints process.
(9) Directive (EU) 2019/1937 of the European Parliament and of the Council of October 23, 2019 on the protection of persons who report violations of Union law (OJ L 305 of November 26, 2019, p. 17).
(10) Regulation (EC) No. 1367/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 September 2006 on the application to institutions and bodies of the provisions of the Aarhus Convention on access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters of the Community (OJ L 264, 25.9.2006, p. 13).
(11) Directive 2011/92 / EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment Text with EEA relevance (OJ L 26, 28.1.2012, p. 1).