What is the most common scientific knowledge


Table of Contents

  1. Generally
  2. development
  3. Freedom of Science
  4. Criticism and Outlook


Science aims to gain knowledge (research) and impart knowledge (teaching), using recognized and valid methods and publishing or including results. In a certain sense, it is unconditional and open to results, unlike Christian theology, for example. Western philosophy can be seen as the mother of several individual sciences. These are characterized by a clearly identifiable subject area. Physics is devoted to inanimate nature, biology to animate nature, and psychology to human experience, behavior and consciousness. There are rational or empirical, general or specific methods that are explained and justified in the philosophy of science (a branch of philosophy).


Western philosophy, as it developed in ancient Greece, turns away from religious explanatory models. It includes science and epistemology, ontology and ethics and has strong references to mathematics and natural science, with protagonists such as Thales, Pythagoras and Democritus. Plato's in 387 B.C.E. School founded in Athens (Platonic Academy) is one of the first teaching companies. His student Aristotle is one of the most important philosophers of all and in some respects one of the first modern scientists. Science had some high points in the Renaissance, as well as in the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries; in the Orient the Middle Ages were their heyday.

Freedom of Science

The freedom of science (or academic freedom) has its origin in the Platonic Academy and includes the freedom of research and teaching as well as learning. It is a fundamental right and anchored in the constitution in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Freedom of research means that researchers have the right to strive for scientific knowledge in a self-determined manner in terms of content and method, while academic institutions have the duty to create the appropriate framework. While research and development have to be free with a few exceptions, their use can certainly be regulated. Freedom of teaching (a form of freedom of speech) is the right of lecturers to design the teaching independently in terms of content and didactics.

Criticism and Outlook

Science can look back on a success story that goes back thousands of years. It has conquered diseases and disabilities, made planes, computers and robots possible and conquered space, it is the basis and engine of the economy and, like art, a source of happiness. At the same time, it is exposed to hostility more than ever, from political strategists, opinion makers, conspiracy theorists, fundamentalists and esotericists - and gets into compulsions and dependencies. It is precisely against this that serious criticism is directed, as well as against experiments and results that harm animals and humans. Scientific operations and communication are evidently to be realigned. The ethics of science may work out the breeding ground, the framework conditions and the boundaries of science as well as the consequences of a pseudoscience.