A load has any weight

High axle loads can push the chassis and roads to their limits

From bussgeldkatalog.org, last updated on: May 15, 2021

How to determine the actual and permissible axle load of your vehicle

They are Axles and the wheelsconnecting your vehicle to the road. Together, these must support the entire weight of your vehicle and its entire load. Hence you will particularly heavily used.

If you too much weight load onto your car, truck or trailer, there is therefore a risk of overloading the axles. A Axle break in the worst case this can be the result.

But even if your vehicle has extremely stable axles: some can have an axle load that is too high Serious damage to roads.

But how can you actual axle load Of your vehicle determine concretely? And what axle loads are for certain vehicles or roads permissible? You can find all the answers in this guide.

FAQ: axle load

What is the axle load?

This is the name given to the weight on the axle of a vehicle or trailer.

How do I find out the permitted axle load of my vehicle?

Information on the axle load can be found in the registration certificate part 1 or in the vehicle registration document.

What happens if I exceed the permissible axle load?

In this case, there is overload, which can cost you a different fine and possibly one point depending on the severity of the violation.

How do you calculate the actual axle load of a vehicle?

The actual axle load is the weight that is on on every axle of a vehicle. For the axle load calculation of a car you need the actual Total mass through the Number of axles of the vehicle share. You can use this formula to calculate the axle load:

Axle load of the vehicle =Empty mass + cargo mass
number of axes

Multiply You reverse the actual axle load with the total number of axles so you get that actual mass of the vehicle. In the case of a motor vehicle, the actual mass corresponds to the weight of all axle loads, since here no vertical load occurs as with trailers.

The actual total mass of a vehicle corresponds to the empty mass plus the mass of people and objects that it has loaded. She may maximum of the permissible total mass of the vehicle, otherwise there is an overload.

Physically however, it is not entirely correct to simply divide the weight by the number of axles. If the center of gravity of a vehicle is not exactly in the middle of the axles, then the Axis heavily loadedwhich the Focus is closer. However, engineers strive to place the center of gravity of a car as centrally as possible in order to improve its driving characteristics.

In addition, the axle load distribution is imminent for both trucks and cars Rest state different from when driving. If a vehicle starts moving, the center of gravity and thus the axle load distribution shift to the rear, while when braking it is a little further forward than when it is idle.

How are the axle loads distributed on a truck?

It can be at the Axle load calculation of a truck will not use the same formula as for cars. This is because it is the weight of a truck and its load much more uneven to his - often eight or even more - Axes distributed than is the case with cars.

Therefore, when calculating the axle load of a truck, it is necessary to examine exactly how the concrete Position of the load affects the entire vehicle. This is different for every truck and also depends heavily on its load, which is why there is no general formula for this.

How do you determine the axle load of a trailer?

The calculation of the actual axle load of a trailer is a little different than with motor vehicles. In the case of a trailer, it is not enough to simply divide the actual total mass by the number of axles.

A small part of the weight rests on the Trailer coupling of the motor vehiclepulling the trailer. Therefore, this vertical load must first be subtracted from the actual total mass before the rest of the actual total mass can be divided by the number of axles. You can calculate the axle load of a trailer using this formula:

Axle load of the trailer =Empty mass + cargo mass - vertical load
number of axes
Some have followers no continuous axesInstead, each wheel is attached to a single, short axle. In this case the actual total mass is determined by the Half of the number of wheels dividedprovided the pivot points of the axes are on same height are appropriate.

In the case of two-axle trailers with a large distance between the axles, there is usually no or only a very low vertical load, which is why you can use the formula for normal vehicles here.

What is the technically permissible axle load of a vehicle?

The permissible axle load of a vehicle usually restricted, there one overload the axle threatens or even breaks if it has to carry too much weight. Hence it is loud Section 34 (2) The Road Traffic Licensing Regulations (StVZO) stipulate a technically permissible maximum axle load for each vehicle, which must not be exceeded.

If you want to determine the permissible axle load of your car, truck, or trailer, your best bet is to take one Look at the vehicle documents. The registration certificate Part I contains the following information on the axle load:

  • (7): Technically permissible maximum axle load / mass per axle group in kg; (7.1) Axis 1 to (7.3) Axis 3
  • (8): Maximum permissible axle load in the Member State of registration in kg; (8.1) Axis 1 to (8.3) Axis 3
  • L: number of axes

You can also use the old vehicle registration Find information on axle load, if you still have one. There you will find the information under the following points:

  • 16: Perm. Axle load kg; v; m; H
  • 18: number d. axes

The information on the axle load in the old vehicle registration document does not yet contain any information about the maximum permissible Axle loads of the countryin which the vehicle is registered as the German maximum values were automatically taken into account during admission. Technically permissible axle loads for trucks and cars can vary from Great differences between model and model, depending on the materials and construction of the entire vehicle.

What are the consequences if the technically permissible axle load is exceeded?

In these cases there is an overload of the vehicle, which with a Punished fine whose height is based on how many percent The permissible axle load exceeded to have.

Also the type of vehicle (Car or truck) and whether you only drove an overloaded vehicle or allowed it to be overloaded will affect the amount of the fine.

You also collect one point in the register of fitness to drive, if it is not an easy case.

What is the significance of the axle load for the road surface?

However, there are not only restrictions for the technically permissible axle load, which is intended to prevent overloading of the vehicle. Also around To prevent road damage, will be a maximum permissible axle loads prescribed.

Some streets have one more sensitive coating than others. However, the load on this covering does not depend on the actual total mass of a vehicle, but on its Axle load. If you imagine a short section of a roadway, it becomes clear that at a certain point in time, not the entire vehicle, but only the weight of one axle is on this section.

Therefore, there is one on some streets in Germany Ban on vehicles, the one exceed certain axle load. These are with the Road sign number 263 that indicates the maximum load that the axles of a vehicle can carry.

Here truck drivers have to be particularly careful whether any of their many axles exceeds the permissible axle load on this road.

A study in the United States found that if the axle load doubled, a road could lose by Sixteen times (!) More stressed becomes. How heavy the traffic is on a road does not only depend on the weight on each axle. The suspension as well as the type of tires can also load or relieve the axles and thus the road.

Are there national restrictions on the maximum axle load?

Also can maximum permissible axle loads for each country that apply on all public roads. The specific regulations for Germany can be found in Section 34 (4) StVZO.

The maximum axle load of a truck (or even a car) depends on several factors the type of tire, how many axles are combined into a multiple axle and the distance between the individual axles of a multiple axle. The following values apply to pneumatic tires or rubber tires (according to Section 36 (3)):

Type of axesMaximum value of the permissible axle load in tonnes
Single axis10
Single axis with drive11,5
Double axle (motor vehicle) with a distance of less than 1 m11,5
Double axle (motor vehicle) with a distance of 1 m to less than 1.3 m16
Double axle (motor vehicle) with a distance of 1.3 m to less than 1.8 m18
Double axle (motor vehicle) with a distance of 1 m to less than 1.3 m, if the drive axle has double tires or comparable suspension19
Double axle (trailer) with a distance of less than 1 m11
Double axle (trailer) with a distance of 1 m to less than 1.3 m16
Double axle (trailer) with a distance of 1.3 m to less than 1.8 m18
Double axle (trailer) at a distance of 1.8 m or more20
Triple axis spaced no more than 1.3 m apart21
Triple axis with a distance of more than 1.3 m to a maximum of 1.4 m24

The maximum axle loads for double and triple axles apply to the entire combination. Even if the actual axle load for the entire combination is below the permissible load, you must still ensure that none of the individual axles has the maximum permissible axle load exceeds.

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