What is locus standi in PIL
PIL and KCO
What is a PIL?
Public Interest Litigation (PIL) - litigation for public interest. PIL was started to protect the
fundamental rights of people who are poor, ignorant or in socially / economically disadvantaged
position. It is different from ordinary litigation, in that it is not filed by one private person against
another for the enforcement of a personal right. The presence of 'public interest' is important to
file a PIL.
A PIL can be filed when the following conditions are fulfilled:
- There must be a public injury and public wrong caused by the wrongful act or omission of the
state or public authority.
- It is for the enforcement of basic human rights of weaker sections of the community who are
downtrodden, ignorant and whose fundamental and constitutional rights have been infringed.
- It must not be frivolous litigation by persons having vested interests.
Who may file a PIL?
The Supreme Court (SC), through its successive judgments, has relaxed the strict rule of 'locus
standi 'applicable to private litigation.
Any person can file a PIL provided:
He is a member of the public acting bona fide and having sufficient interest in instituting
an action for redressal of public wrong or public injury.
He is not a mere busy body or a meddlesome interloper.
His action is not motivated by personal gain or any other oblique consideration.
How to file a PIL:
A PIL may be filed like a write petition. However, in the past the SC has treated even letters
addressed to the court as PIL. In People’s Democratic Union v Union of India, a letter addressed
by the petitioner organization seeking a direction against the respondents for ensuring observance
of the provisions of famous labor laws in relation to workmen employed in the construction work
of projects connected with the Asian games was entertained as a PIL.
The SC has encouraged the filing of PIL for tackling issues related to environment, human rights
The mother-son duo has discovered that Harvard has produced the largest number of
billionaires; Stanford has been a breeding ground of entrepreneurs; and Columbia has Nobel
laureates swarming the campus. "We are now studying the work being done by the
professors and alumni and what opportunity I may get there, "Arunavha said.
KCO’s, SSAE16 & Other Audits
KCOs - Key Controls over Operations
SSAE16 - Statements on standards for Attestation Engagement No: 16
Types of audits
a) Internal Audits: Deep Dive, Peer Review, Project Management Review, Transition
Quality Review, Compliance Testing Program
b) External Audits: Corporate Audit, Business Control Review, SOX Audit, SAS70 Audit,
Customer initiated security review, Customer capability review, KCO Audit, ISO27k
KCO’s - The key controls over operations, formerly known as Framework for Internal
Controls (FICs), is world wide initiative designed to emcompass a focused and effective
KCO are integrated with and built upon control actions taken in response to the Sarbanes-
Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX). KCOs replace previous control assessments such as the semi-
annual controls assessment.
Phases of KCO IT Security Review:
The review process consists of three distinct phases
Pre-Review Phase: The three week period from when the review announcement is published
to the actual start.
Review phase: Typically a three week duration from the review start date to end date.
Post Review Phase: The five day period immediately following the end date of the review.
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