What are stimuli


Synonym: stimulus
English: stimulus

1 definition

Under a Charm one understands a goal-oriented or non-goal-oriented event that leads to the excitation (stimulation) of a perceptual structure (receptor).

2 background

The dualism between stimulus and perception means that stimuli can be just as diverse and complex as the receptors specialized for them. Stimuli are not linked to conscious perception. The consciously perceived stimuli (light, sounds, smells, etc.) represent only a small, interpreted section of the events registered by all receptors.

3 classification

3.1 ... according to complexity

  • Simple charms: They are of a physical (light, sound, temperature) or chemical (transmitter, hormone) nature and are perceived at the cellular level by specialized receptors.
  • Interpreted stimuli: They summarize stimuli from individual receptors or receptor groups and process them into a simple concept (e.g. hunger) in the older brain regions.
  • Complex stimuli: You address abstract social concepts (e.g. "recognition", "fame") and use learned reward and punishment experiences of the individual. Advertising, for example, works with complex stimuli.

3.2 ... according to receptor reference

  • Adequate stimulus: The "correct" stimulus, i.e. the stimulus for which the receptor has the maximum sensitivity (e.g. light for the photoreceptors of the eye)
  • Inadequate stimulus: A "false" stimulus that does not trigger an excitement at all or only at very high intensity (e.g. "see stars" when you press the eye)