What does farmland mean

General information on buying farmland:

Agricultural land is divided into arable land, grassland, horticultural areas and forest.

Farmland is an agricultural area, which is included in the crop rotation of the soil cultivation and regularly or at certain time intervals z. B. is plowed and tilled with the plow. This includes areas on which grain, pulses, root crops, oilseeds, commercial crops and forage crops are grown.

In Germany, most of the arable land is used for plant production for food and fodder purposes, while a smaller part is used for growing energy crops. (wikipedia)

As Grassland Agricultural areas are called on which grass and herbaceous plants grow as a permanent crop and which are either grazed or harvested by mowing. As a rule, these are anthropogenically created areas, i. H. they are not original natural pastures, but parts of cultural landscapes that were created by human hands.

The growth of the green areas can be fed to livestock as roughage and thus forms an important source of basic forage for fodder farms. In addition, the growths can be used as renewable raw materials. At low-yield locations, aspects of landscape management and nature conservation also play a role in the grassland areas.

The term grassland as a form of land use denotes the agriculturally used open land in contrast to arable land that is plowed up, horticultural areas, which in a broader sense also include fruit and wine-growing areas and the like, as well as fallow land that remains temporarily unused, and the numerous Forms of secondary agricultural areas (unproductive areas), such as paths, creeks, groves, but also areas used for ponds and the like, as well as commercial forests, which represent the forestry branch of farms. (wikipedia)

 

Soil factors:

All of our crops (except meadow grasses) grow on the arable land. The farmer distinguishes between fertile and less fertile soils. The crucial component for soil fertility is the Humus content, the content of organic matter.

General means Soil fertility the ability of a soil to serve as a location for plants and to produce sustainable, regular plant yields of high quality. Soil fertility arises from the interplay of physical (such as mechanical tillage), chemical (such as fertilizer use) and biological soil properties and their diverse interactions. (Gisi et. Al. 1997)

Physical soil properties are the soil's ability to store water, its density, pore volume, how well a soil is ventilated and the stability of its aggregates.

One of the most important chemical properties of soil is its ability to retain ions (e.g. nutrients), to sorb them, and to be able to release them when required. The accumulation of nutrients takes place on the surfaces of the mineral and organic soil particles, mainly on the colloids, such as clay minerals and humic substances.

The biological soil quality is determined by the composition of the soil flora and fauna and their living conditions. The living conditions include factors such as the structure of the soil, the composition of the organic matter, the soil water content and soil aeration, the pH value, the availability of nutrients and toxicological harmlessness. A soil of high biological quality is therefore able to serve as a habitat for a large number of organisms. Because the soil organisms are involved in almost all processes that take place in the soil. By breaking down, incorporating and converting organic matter, they significantly promote the development of sustainable soil fertility. (Blum 2007)

The soil properties are therefore always a product of the various abiotic and biotic development processes in the soil and are subject to more or less strong change.

An important factor here is always that PH value of the soil. Neutral soils have a pH value of seven, in the range of six to seven the physico-chemical reactions in the soil, the so-called nutrient balance, are best. Acid soils have to be limed regularly or they only result in poor quality grassland locations and are not suitable for arable farming.

Another factor affecting soil quality is the Soil type It describes the composition of the soil in terms of the main soil types and is determined by the grain size composition of the mineral soil substance. The farmer differentiates between sand, loess, loam or clay soils and among them the various intermediate levels. (wikipedia)

In Germany, a distinction is made between the main types of soil according to the following system:

Sand (S) - diameter from 0.063 to 2 mm

Silt (U) - diameter from 0.002-0.063 mm

Clay (T) - diameter less than 0.002 mm

Loam (L) is a mixture of sand, silt and clay in roughly equal proportions.

Sandy and sandy soils are poor soils because they have poor ability to bind water and nutrients and nutrients are quickly washed out. On the other hand, they are light soils and correspondingly easier to work on. The other extreme is clay soils: They are very heavy and difficult to work, which is why they are also known as “minute floors”. The most productive are loam soils, loess soils are absolute top soils.

Soils are not built up uniformly, but consist of different horizons (seen in the soil profile). Then one differentiates between different ones Soil types such as black earth, brown earth, podsol, peatland or weathered soil.

These but also various other factors influence the value of an agricultural area. In addition, the amount of precipitation in the region, the location of the area (level or slope), possible shading by plantings on the edge, the path of the area, the layout of the area and its size should also be mentioned here.

 

Soil assessment:

The valuation of arable and grassland soils in Germany goes back to the soil appraisal of the German Reich in 1934. Since then, the “Soil Appreciation Act” (amended in 1965 by the “Appraisal Modification Act”) has been in force in Germany as the basis for property purchases, leases, land use planning, compensation, taxation and the like .

The soil appraisal is carried out according to the field appraisal framework. It takes into account the type of soil (grain size classes), the type and geological age of the parent rock and the degree of development (state level) of the soil (soil development). The derived from it Number of trays (BZ) is considered an approximate measure of soil fertility. It indicates in percent what net yield can be achieved on a soil, compared to the net yield on the most fertile soil in Germany, the black earth soils of the Magdeburg Börde, which is set equal to 100. (Lexicon of Biology)

If additional information about climate (soil climate, microclimate) and relief are taken into account, this results in the Number of fields (AZ), also called arable value number or land points (BP). It measures the quality of arable land and is given as a benchmark for soil yield. Based on the number of soils, it is determined by surcharges and deductions based on factors such as climate or selected landscape features (e.g. slope inclination and forest shade), insofar as these differ from the standard values ​​(including 8 ° C mean annual temperature, 600 mm mean annual precipitation, none or very slight slope). The number of arable land can be seen as a correction of the number of soils while evaluating the natural conditions of the individual site. The scale of possible values ​​ranges from 1 (very bad) to 120 (very good). (wikipedia)

As a measure of the productivity of grassland in the soil assessment, the Grassland number (GZ) specified. It is determined on the basis of the grassland evaluation framework of the realm soil estimate or the improved Rostock grassland evaluation framework. The basis for determining the grassland number is the grassland base number, which indicates the percentage yield ratio of a certain grassland area to the best soil. Methodologically, the number of grasslands is determined like the number of arable land. (wikipedia)

These land valuation key figures can be read from the map series of the real estate cadastre, e.g. Sometimes even online. The basis is the DGK 5 Bo - a soil map that was drawn up in the course of the Reich soil assessment in 1934.

 

Prices for arable land and grassland:

The formation of prices in agricultural land markets is complex and is influenced by a large number of factors. In addition to features that directly determine productivity, such as the quality of the soil or the size of the property, agricultural and environmental bonuses and grants, as well as the market microstructure, also play a role.

According to Kipp (AID, 2015), a trend has been observed for several years that worries many farmers: the continuous increase in lease and purchase prices for German agricultural land. Between the years 2000 and 2013, the purchase prices for arable and grassland areas rose by an average of 80%. Depending on the region and state, the prices differ e.g. T. very strong.

Many farmers are following these rapid price increases with concern, because anyone who wants to enlarge their farm area needs a relatively large amount of capital in order to keep up with this development. More and more financially strong investors from the non-agricultural sector are also bidding. They see great financial potential for the future in agricultural areas and farms, especially in times of increasing inflation and low returns.

It is not easy to find a solution to the problem of rising land prices. Especially in times of a steadily growing world population and expanding agricultural markets, agricultural land is becoming increasingly sought-after and scarce.

The Federal Republic of Germany has a total area of ​​357,022 km², almost half of which is used for agriculture, which means around 17 million hectares. In terms of arable farming, only approx. 12 million of this agricultural area are used.ha used (around a third of the total area), with an upward trend, as many farmers want to expand. The agriculturally used areas are, however, threatened by the progressive sealing of areas by industry, traffic and housing construction, around 45,000 hectares per year.

Based on these factors, it can be assumed that the demand pressure on the scarce agricultural land will continue, with the consequence of high land prices.

 

hunt

There is a close interdependence between hunting and agriculture, which makes farmers and hunters or territory owners important partners. The alternation of forests, meadows and fields determines the habitat of our wild animals. Agricultural fields, meadows and pastures are also habitat for wild game. The focus here is on the keeping of game, which must be carried out in such a way that impairment of proper agricultural and forestry use, in particular damage to game, is avoided.

The point at which agricultural areas can be used for private hunting depends largely on the size of the areas and their location in relation to one another. This is regulated in the Federal Hunting Act and the hunting laws of the individual federal states.