How is xanthan made


Xanthan gumAuxiliary materialsCarbohydratesXanthan is a natural heteropolysaccharide that is produced by the fermentation of carbohydrates with the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris is won. It is found in numerous processed foods, in personal care products, and as an adjuvant in medical devices and pharmaceuticals. Xanthan increases the viscosity of the products and has thickening, stabilizing and gel-forming properties. Preparations with the additive become temporarily more fluid when moved, for example when shaken and under the influence of shear forces (thixotropy). Xanthan is considered to be harmless and is generally well tolerated.

synonymous: xanthan gum, xanthan gum, E 415, gum xanthanum

Products

Pure xanthan is available in pharmacies and drugstores, among others. It was discovered in the 1950s and went on sale in the 1960s.

Structure and properties

Xanthan is a natural, high molecular weight, extracellular, purified and ground heteropolysaccharide that is produced by the fermentation of carbohydrates (e.g. glucose, starch) with the rod-shaped bacterium Xanthomonas campestris is won. Xanthan is made up of D-glucose, D-mannose, D-glucuronic acid, acetate and pyruvate. It is available as a cream-colored (beige) powder and is readily soluble in both hot and cold water.

Effects

Xanthan has thickening, stabilizing, emulsifying, gel-forming and foam-forming properties. It increases the viscosity of the preparations. Products with xanthan show a thixotropic behavior, i.e. they are agitated, for example when shaken or. under the action of shear forces, temporarily more fluid. This is desirable in the manufacture of toothpastes, creams or salad dressings, for example. The viscosity also decreases with increasing temperature.

application areas
  • As a thickener in the food industry (E 415), for example for jams, sauces, mayonnaise, dairy products, ketchup, jelly, canned goods, beverages, puddings and desserts.
  • For the production of gluten-free foods.
  • Xanthan gum is added to hard doughs in small amounts to make them softer and more pliable.
  • For cosmetics and personal care products, in toothpastes.
  • As a pharmaceutical excipient.
unwanted effects

Xanthan is considered to be harmless and is generally well tolerated.

literature
  • EFSA
  • FAO
  • García-Ochoa F., Santos V.E., Casas J.A., Gómez E. Xanthan gum: production, recovery, and properties. Biotechnol Adv, 2000, 18 (7), 549-79 Pubmed
  • Handbooks and encyclopedias of food technology
  • Safety data sheet
author

Conflicts of Interest: None / Independent. The author has no relationships with the manufacturers and is not involved in the sale of the products mentioned.


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This article was last changed on 7/9/2020.
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