What is the best fire retardant
According to the Model Garage Ordinance (M-GarVO), "the requirements of the model building regulations for these components in buildings of building class (GK) 5 must be applied to load-bearing and stiffening as well as space-enclosing components of garages". In addition, numerous alleviations of the MBO, in particular for GK 1 and 2, may not be applied to garages:
- No fire wall replacement walls are permitted.
- Openings in ceilings are not permitted; Assembly openings are to be closed in fire resistance quality.
- In buildings with garages> 200 m², corridors through which escape routes lead are always necessary corridors.
- Elevators in GK 1 and 2 buildings with garages must have their own lift shafts.
- Lines in garages (also class 1 and 2) may only be passed through room-enclosing components for which fire resistance is prescribed if there is no reason to fear that the fire will spread for a sufficiently long time or if precautions have been taken to prevent it.
- Ventilation ducts in garages, as well as their cladding and insulation materials, must be made of non-combustible building materials.
- Ventilation lines may only bridge room-enclosing components for which fire resistance is prescribed if there is no reason to fear that the fire will spread for a sufficiently long time or if precautions have been taken to prevent it.
- Ventilation systems are to be constructed in such a way that they do not transfer odors and dust into other rooms.
Differentiation of garages by size and type
Open garages have non-closable openings leading directly into the open air, which are at least 1/3 of the total area of the enclosing walls or have at least two opposing enclosing walls with openings leading to the open that are ≤ 70 meters apart. These types of garages have permanent cross ventilation. The open small garages include those that have openings that lead directly to the outside and are at least one third of the total area of the surrounding walls.
Closed garages: If the points mentioned under “Open garages” are not adhered to, the garages are closed.
Aboveground garages: Your floor is on average no more than 1.50 m below the surface of the ground.
Automatic garages have no passenger or vehicle traffic. The motor vehicles are brought with mechanical conveyor systems from the garage entrance to the garage parking spaces and also returned to the garage exit for collection.
Small garages have a usable area1 up to 100 m2.
Middle garages have a usable area of 100 to 1,000 m2.
Large garages have a usable area of over 1,000 m2.
Load-bearing and space-enclosing components
Load-bearing walls and ceilings within garages as well as space-enclosing walls and ceilings between garages and rooms or parts of buildings that are used for other purposes must fire resistant be. Highly fire-retardant components are permitted as non-load-bearing partition walls between garages of GK 4.Fire-retardant load-bearing and room-enclosing components made of non-combustible building materials are permitted in above-ground medium and large garages up to GK 3.Fire-retardant components are permitted as non-load-bearing partition walls between garages of GK 3 and as Room-enclosing walls and ceilings between closed small garages and other rooms in GK 3.
Fire-retardant load-bearing components or load-bearing components made of non-flammable building materials without fire resistance are permissible for single-storey above-ground medium and large garages with roof parking spaces if the building is used solely for the garage. Non-flammable load-bearing components without fire resistance are permitted for open medium-sized and large garages in buildings that are used solely for garage use and for automatic garages if the building is used solely as an automatic garage.
Load-bearing and room-enclosing components without fire resistance are permitted for load-bearing walls and ceilings of small garages of GK 1 and 2, between small garages and rooms or buildings that are only used for storage purposes and have no more than 20 m² of floor space, and between open small garages and other rooms or buildings .
Linings and insulation layers
Cladding and insulation layers under ceilings and roofs must be made of non-combustible building materials for large garages and of at least flame-retardant building materials for medium-sized garages.
The outer walls of medium-sized and large garages must be made of non-flammable building materials, with the exception of single-storey above-ground medium and large garages if the building is used solely for garage use.
Building end walls
Fire-resistant end walls without openings are sufficient for single-storey above-ground medium and large garages if the building is used solely for garage use. A building partition wall is not required for open small garages.
Smoke compartments, fire compartments
Closed garages, with the exception of automatic garages, must be divided into smoke sections by at least fire-retardant walls made of non-combustible building materials.
The usable area of a smoke zone may:
- in above-ground closed garages a maximum of 5,000 m²,
- in other closed garages amount to a maximum of 2,500 m².
In garages that have sprinkler systems, the area can be twice as large. A smoke section can also extend over several floors. Openings in the walls must be provided with smoke protection barriers.
Gates and fixtures
In medium and large garages, other interior walls and gates, fixtures and fittings for mechanical parking systems must be made of non-flammable building materials.
Medium and large garages must have at least two independent structural escape routes on each floor. In above-ground medium-sized and large garages, an escape route is sufficient if an exit to the open can be reached within a maximum of 10.00 m. The second escape route may also lead via a ramp. In the case of above-ground medium-sized and large garages, the parking spaces of which are on average no more than 3.00 m above the surface of the site, stairwells for necessary stairs are not required. At least one escape and rescue route (exit to the open, stairwell) must be accessible from every point in a medium-sized and large garage on the same floor, at a distance of no more than 50.00 m for open medium-sized and large garages and 30.00 m for closed areas - and large garages. In medium-sized and large garages, permanent and easily recognizable signs of the exits must be present. In large garages, the paths leading to the necessary stairs or to the exits to the outside must be marked on the floor by permanent and easily recognizable markings and on the walls by illuminated signs.
In addition to general lighting, in closed large garages, with the exception of single-storey large garages with a fixed group of users, there must be safety lighting to illuminate the escape routes.
Closed medium-sized and large garages must have mechanical exhaust air systems and ventilation openings that are large and distributed in such a way that all parts of the garage are adequately ventilated.
For these garages, natural ventilation through ventilation openings or ventilation shafts is sufficient if they - such as residential garages - have only little entry and exit traffic. These vents must
- have a total free cross-section of ≥ 1,500 cm² per garage parking space,
- in the outer walls above the surface of the site facing each other at a distance of no more than 35 m,
- be unlockable and
- be distributed over the garage in such a way that constant cross ventilation is ensured.
- be arranged at a distance of ≤ 20 m from one another and
- have a total free cross-section of ≥ 1,500 cm² per garage parking space for a height of up to 2 m and a total free cross-section of ≥ 3,000 cm² per garage parking space for a height of more than 2 m.
Mechanical exhaust air systems are to be dimensioned and operated in such a way that the half-hourly CO value, taking into account the traffic peaks that can be expected regularly, does not exceed 100 ppm. Closed large garages with not only little inbound and outbound traffic must have CO systems for measuring and warning (CO warning systems).
Fire extinguishing systems
Non-automatic fire extinguishing systems such as semi-stationary water spray extinguishing systems or light foam extinguishing systems must be available in closed garages with more than 20 parking spaces on power-operated lifting platforms if more than two vehicles can be arranged on top of each other. They are also required in automatic garages with 20 or more parking spaces.
Sprinkler systems must be available on floors of large garages if the floor of the floors is more than 4.00 m below the surface of the site and the building is not solely used for garage use; this does not apply if the large garage is not connected to storeys with any other use. They are also required in automatic garages with 20 or more garage parking spaces.
Fire alarm systems
Closed medium-sized and large garages must have fire alarm systems if they are in connection with structures or rooms for which fire alarm systems are required.
In addition to the special requirements for the construction of garages, the Garage Ordinance contains operating regulations for garages that relate to general electrical lighting, mechanical ventilation systems and CO warning systems as well as the storage of fuel.
1) The usable area of a garage is the sum of all interconnected areas of the garage parking spaces and the traffic areas.
Expertise on the subject
Escape / rescue routes
Definition of escape and rescue routes
In general, the two terms are combined under the escape route in the building regulations. On the other hand, there are differences in special building regulations.
Smoke and heat extractors
Mechanical smoke extraction systems (MRA)
A smoke and heat extraction system (RWA) is referred to as a mechanical smoke extraction system (MRA) if its function is ...
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