Is GST erroneously true or false
Solve problem, can be divided into three components: Initial state, Target state and Operationswhich overcomes the difference between these two states. Problems, in turn, can be classified according to how well these individual components are defined. 1) First off, have yourself Gestalt psychologists turned towards problem solving (gestalt psychology). They interpreted a problem as the presence of one bad shapethat can be brought into good shape by restructuring the problem. One thing is decisive here reorganization the original problem representation, which enables problem solving, which is often associated with an aha experience. 2) In the 1960s, the perspective of problem-solving activities as Information search in a mental space. Very often used as research material Brain teasers. In contrast to the gestalt psychological investigations, the focus of the research was on the analysis of Problem solving strategies. The preferred empirical survey method was the recording of the individual problem-solving steps by means of simultaneous thinking aloud and the subsequent ones Computer modeling of the postulated problem-solving strategies. The theoretical endeavors were based on the assumption that the problem solver can reach various states of knowledge while searching for a problem. These define the Problem space, a metaphor that has proven extremely fruitful in analyzing problem-solving processes. Individual problem-solving steps can then be identified simply by converting one state of the problem area into another. Successful problem solving can be based on the Problem space metaphor as the search for a valid sequence of states of the problem space leading from the initial state to the goal state. The focus of the research efforts was the identification of the principles according to which people search the problem area. For example, the problem solver tries to Method of successive difference reductionto reduce the distance between the state already achieved and the target state by achieving intermediate goals. When setting intermediate goals, one can start from the initial state (Forward search) as well as the target state (Reverse search), with the former strategy typically starting from Experts |, the latter from Novices is taken. An effective form of the selection of sub-goals is the so-called Means-goal analysis, in which the current state is permanently examined for possible means of realizing the desired sub-goals. 3) The view of problem-solving as information processing was supplemented in the 1980s by findings from expert research that highlight the enormous influence of prior knowledge and the Previous experience was able to demonstrate convincingly on problem-solving processes. In addition to artificial brain teasers, problem-solving behavior in various areas of everyday life was therefore examined more intensively, for example mathematics, physics or the game of chess. It turned out that the problem-solving of the experts is characterized less by time-consuming search processes in a mental problem space than by the application of routine problem-solving procedures or in many cases also by the direct recall of (interim) solutions from memory. In contrast, problem solving by people who have no prior knowledge of a task is usually slow and very error-prone.
Empirical research has shown that individuals in many ways suboptimal problem solvers are. Even the initial problem representation is often incorrect and incomplete. Often silent ones creep in Additional assumptions that were not given in the problem statement. It is particularly difficult for people to find more efficient but novel forms of problem representation for known problems. This also applies to the solution steps themselves, whereby prior knowledge plays a double-edged role. In the case of a large number of types of tasks, it has been shown that once established successful solutions are tried again and again, even if simpler - and for an unbiased observer quite obvious - solutions are possible. As a scientific answer to these restricted human problem-solving capacities, a number of them have become more efficient Exercise programs to be developed.
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