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[411]Business books. The durability and handiness of these books require special paper skills, precise rulings, good opening and resistance of the cover and the book body to external influences.

For practical reasons, an agreement has been reached on certain formats, which are introduced almost everywhere under the following names: Narrow Folio 331/2 × 14, Propatria folio 331/2 × 20, Propatria Langfolio 411/2 × 17, Propatria half-folio 331/2 × 10, unicorn folio 33 × 231/2, Unicorn long folio 47 × 19, small median 401/2 × 26, large median 441/2 × 283/4, Royal 461/2 × 301/2, Superroyal 481/2 × 351/4, Imperial 551/2 × 39 cm.

The Ruling the longitudinal and transverse lines, usually drawn in red and blue aniline or carmine ink, are made on the ruling machine (see Fig. 1). The inserted sheet slides under a cross bar fitted with springs or rollers made of brass, which can be raised and lowered as required by means of a mechanism. In order to dry the water-soluble colors fed to the feathers and rollers through flannel strips, the sheet is passed back and forth several times through running sheets and cords within the machine and finally piled up at the rear end, and then passed the machine several times, as always only one direction is established on one side of the sheet with a single pass; the impression of column heads is also effected separately.

After carefully folding and assembling, possibly gluing Schirting folds into the first and last layers of each book, the book is then stapled by hand or machine (see Fig. Bookbinding). Gluing and trimming usually deviate little from the usual procedure; the focus is on the production of the Jump back. This consists of a number of thin cardboard strips that are either firmly glued to one another (laminated spine) or only glued together at the edges (loose-layered spine), using the book spine rounding machine (see DRP No. 59470, 62713, 63096) into a more semicircular shape are (see Fig. 2). The pre-cut and glued backs are pushed against the mold on a metal cloth and wedged between a heated pipe and the cloth, creating an elastic, resilient two-thirds tube that is glued to the weak cover attached to the attachment by means of a strip of fabric over the back. At some distance from the back fold, the actual strong cover is glued on, which, after drying in the press, is cut to a certain edge size by means of a knife or forming machine. When covering, for which canvas, linen and moleskin, but above all the strongest and most durable types of leather, are used, the groove between the back edge and the heel cover is pressed down by inserting a correspondingly thick cardboard strip, a wooden strip or the end of a rope, the same as when opening the To give the book's sideways pushing jump spine room to maneuver. The spring force of the same then causes the book to "jump" out of the curve of the spine and, lying completely flat, can be written on until the spine breaks. Likewise, when the book is closed, the side pressure causes it to snap back into the original position (see Fig. 2). Before covering it, it is customary to cut out the upper layers of cardboard on the back and cover to enable the title plates to be recessed; The corners are usually slightly rounded and the back is decorated with cardboard strips or rich blind and gold printing, attached leather parts, attached metal fittings or drawn-in leather or parchment strips. After completion, the pages are usually paginated or foiled on the specially built paging machine or handset (see p. Numbering machine) as well as cutting the register.

Literature: Adam, Lehr- und Handbuch der Buchbinderei, Dresden 1885, p. 299 and f. [411] Leo's bookbinder calendar; last catalog from W. Leos Nachf., Stuttgart 1906; Allgemeine Anzeiger für Buchbinderei, Stuttgart 1894, p. 75; 1891, p. 193; 1903, p. 43.