How is memory managed in Python

Does Python have a stack / heap and how is the memory managed?


How are variables and memory managed in Python?

Automatically! No really, you just create an object and the Python Virtual Machine will manage the memory it needs and where to place it on the memory layout.

Does it have a stack and a heap, and what algorithm is used to manage the memory?

If we talk about it, there will be a private heap used to store objects. From the CPython C API documentation:

Memory management in Python includes a private heap that contains all Python objects and data structures. The management of this private heap is ensured internally by the Python memory manager. The Python memory manager has several components that deal with different aspects of dynamic memory management, such as: B. Release, segmentation, pre-allocation or intermediate storage.

The memory reclamation is mostly done by Reference count . That said, the Python VM keeps an internal journal of how many references point to an object and automatically gathers it through garbage when there are no more references to it. In addition, there is a mechanism for breaking circular references (which reference counting cannot handle) by detecting unreachable "islands" of objects, something in contrast to traditional GC algorithms which try to find all reachable objects.

NOTE: Please note that this information is specific. Other Python implementations, such as ,, and others, can differ from each other and from CPython when it comes to their implementation specifics. To understand this better, can it will be helpful to understand that there is a difference between Python, the semantics (the language), and the underlying implementation

Given this knowledge, are there any memory management recommendations for processing large numbers / data?

Now I can't talk about it, but I'm sure NumPy (the most popular Python number-cracking library) has mechanisms that handle memory consumption appropriately.

If you want to learn more about Python's internals, check out these resources:

Python has no such thing.

Python is the language and does not state how exactly that Implementations are must achieve the semantics defined by Python, the language.

Any implementation (CPython, PyPy, IronPython, Stackless , Jython ...) can do their own thing!

In C. Python are located all Objects on the heap:

Memory management in Python includes a private heap that contains all Python objects and data structures. 1

The CPython virtual machine is stack-based:

Note that this is CPython specific. However, the stack does not contain the actual Values, but contains references to these objects.

1 : source

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