What is percolation in hydrology

Processes of the water cycle

Precipitation
is water in the atmosphere that was excreted after condensation or sublimation of water vapor in the air envelope and, as a result of gravity, either moved to the earth's surface (falling precipitation) or reached the earth's surface (fallen precipitation) (DIN 1996).Interception
The temporary storage of fallen or settled precipitation on plant surfaces, from where it can evaporate or reach the ground through dripping or running off. infiltration
Movement of the seepage water from above into the ground. Drain
Volume of water that flows through a defined above-ground flow cross-section (discharge cross-section) per unit of time. Surface runoff
Part of the runoff that flows directly to the receiving water (stream, river) via the soil surface. Evaporation (evaporation + transpiration)
Process in which water changes from liquid or solid to gaseous (water vapor) at temperatures below the boiling point. Evaporation is the direct evaporation from the free soil surface and over water to the exclusion of biological-physiological processes. Transpiration is the evaporation of plant surfaces (regulation by opening / closing the stomata in the leaves) and is therefore biologically and physiologically relevant (cuticular and stomatal perspiration). Capillary rise
Upward movement of water in the ground against gravity due to capillary forces. Interflow
Runoff component that flows through the near-surface soil layers to the receiving water. PercolationDownward movement of seepage water in the soil, which moves downwards in the seepage space due to the predominance of gravity over binding forces. (see groundwater recharge.)Groundwater recharge
Access of infiltrated water to groundwater after it has passed down the ground. When the groundwater is reached, the percolation is followed by the formation of new groundwater. Base dischargeGroundwater-borne runoff that flowed to the receiving water from the groundwater. Channel drainageVolume of water that flows through a defined above-ground flow cross-section (discharge cross-section) in a channel (= receiving water) per unit of time