Sugar cane juice cools the body

Sugar cane grows in India. Countries where sugar beet and sugar cane are grown. Effect on the human body, useful substances

  1. Sugar cane - A genus consisting primarily of perennial grain. Contains 5-6 species. Homeland - Southeast Asia. Fine sugar cane is grown (in India, Brazil, Cuba and Central Asia) and produces more than half of the world's sugar production. Biology. Modern encyclopedia
  2. Sugar cane - (Saccharum) is a genus of perennial sugary plants (see sugary plants) of the grain family. The stem is straight up (up to 6 m). The panicle is large, softly hairy with articulated branches. Great Soviet encyclopedia
  3. sugar cane - (Saccharum), a genus of perennial (outside the tropics - annual) plants of the family. Grain. Stems high. up to 6 m and thick up to 5 cm. The inflorescence is a strongly branched panicle of long length. 70-90 cm, fluffy from the long silky hairs that surround each spikelet. Biological lexicon
  4. Sugar cane - Sugar cane is a genus of mainly perennial grasses belonging to the cereal family. 5-10 kinds. Fine sugar cane is mainly grown in India, Brazil, Cuba and Mi Asia (small plantations). Up to 20% sugar in stems. Dr. Large lexicon

Taxonomy
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IT IS42058
NCBI
IPNI 419977-1
Tpl kew-439977

Cultivation of sugar caneor Sugar cane noble (lat. Sáccharum officinárum) - plant; Species of the genus Sugarcane ( Saccharum) Grain family. Used by humans together with sugar beets to make sugar.

distribution and habitat

Cultivated sugar cane - a perennial herbaceous plant that is grown in numerous varieties in the tropics, from 35 ° C up to 30 ° S N, and in South America the mountains rise to an altitude of 3000 m.

Sugar cane comes from the southwestern Pacific. Saccharum spontaneum occurs in the wild in East and North Africa, the Middle East, India, China, Taiwan, Malaysia and New Guinea. The center of origin, possibly northern India, where there are forms with the smallest set of chromosomes. Saccharum robustum is found on the shores of New Guinea and some of the adjacent islands and is endemic to the region. The sugar cane grown most likely comes from New Guinea. These reeds can only grow in tropical regions with a suitable climate and soil. Saccharum barberi can come from India. Saccharum sinense is found in India, Indochina, southern China, and Taiwan. Saccharum edule appears to be a pure form Saccharum robustum and is only found in New Guinea and on nearby islands.

Botanical description


The rhizome is short-limbed and strongly rooted.

Cultivation history


Sugar cane culture began in ancient times. Sugar obtained from sugar cane is known in Sanskrit: "Sarkura", in Arabic "Sukhar", in Persian "Shakar". Sugar is mentioned by ancient European writers under the name "Saccharum" (in Pliny), but also as a very rare and expensive substance that only applies to medicine. The Chinese learned to refine sugar as early as the 8th century, and Arabic writers in the 9th century. Century mentioned sugar cane as a plant that was grown on the coast of the Persian Gulf. In the XII century, the Arabs transported it to Egypt, Sicily and Malta. Sugar cane appeared in Madeira and the Canary Islands in the mid-15th century. In 1492 sugar cane was transported from Europe to America in the Antilles and grown in large numbers on the island of San Domingo, as sugar consumption had become very high at that time. At the beginning of the 16th century sugar cane appeared in Brazil, 1520 in Mexico, 1600 in Guayana, 1650 on the island of Martinique, 1750 on the island of Mauritius etc. Sugar was grown in Europe Cane was always very small because the sugar brought from the tropics was cheaper. Eventually, sugar cane growing in Europe was completely stopped after they started making sugar from beets.

The most important modern sugar cane plantations are in Southeast Asia (India, Indonesia, Philippines), Cuba, Brazil and Argentina.

Cultural biology

Sugar cane is cut by cuttings.

The cultivation of sugar cane requires a tropical or subtropical climate with an annual rainfall of at least 600 mm. Sugar cane is one of the most efficient plants that photosynthesize and can convert more than 2% of solar energy into biomass. In regions where reeds are preferred, such as Hawaii, the yield is up to 20 kg per square meter.

Process for making sugar from sugar cane

To extract sugar, cut the stems before flowering; The stem contains up to 8-12% fiber, 18-21% sugar and 67-73% water (salts and proteins). Cut stems are crushed with iron handles and the juice is pressed. The juice contains up to 0.03% protein, 0.1% granular substances (starch), 0.22% nitrogen-containing mucus, 0.29% salts (mostly organic acids), 18.36% sugar, 81% water and one very small amount of flavoring substances that give the raw juice a peculiar smell. Freshly slaked lime is added to the raw juice to separate the proteins, heated to 70 ° C, then filtered and evaporated until the sugar crystallizes.

production

Sugar cane produces up to 65% of the world's sugar production.

Sugar cane is one of the main export goods in many countries.

India was the leader in sugar cane production until 1980 and Brazil since 1980. Until 1992, Cuba consistently occupied third place, where its production has declined sharply since the beginning of the 1990s as a result of the decline of the USSR.

Twenty leading sugar cane producing countries - 2011
countrya thousand tons of sugar cane
Brazil 734 000
India 342 382
PRC 115 124
Thailand 95 950

Sugar cane is similar to bamboo: the cylindrical stems, which often reach a height of 6-7.3 m and a thickness of 1.5-8 cm, grow in clusters. Sugar is extracted from their juice. At the nodes of the stems, the kidneys or "eyes" develop into short side shoots. From them get cuttings for the propagation of reeds. Seeds are formed in panicles with an apical inflorescence. They are used to develop new varieties and only in exceptional cases as seeds. The plant needs a lot of sun, warmth and water as well as fertile soil. That is why sugar cane is only grown in areas with hot and humid climates.

Under favorable conditions, it grows very quickly, the plantations before harvest look like impenetrable jungle. In Louisiana (USA), sugar cane ripens in 6-7 months, in Cuba in one year and in Hawaii in 1.5-2 years. In order to ensure a maximum sucrose content in the stems (10-17% of the mass), the crop is harvested as soon as the plant is no longer growing in height. If harvesting is done manually (with long machete knives), the shoots are cut near the ground, after which the leaves are removed and the stems cut into short pieces suitable for processing. Manual cleaning is used when labor is cheap or the characteristics of the construction site do not allow the efficient use of machines. The technique of pre-burning the lower vegetation level is usually used on large plantations. A fire destroys most of the weeds without damaging sugar cane. By mechanizing the process, production costs are significantly reduced.

The Story Two regions challenge the right to be considered the birthplace of sugar cane - the fertile valleys of northeast India and the Polynesian islands in the South Pacific. However, botanical studies, ancient literary sources, and etymological data speak in favor of India. Many of the wild, woody sugar cane varieties found there do not differ in their main characteristics from modern cultivated forms. Sugar cane is mentioned in the laws of Manu and other Hindu sacred books. The word sugar itself comes from the Sanskrit Sarkara (gravel, sand or sugar); Centuries later, this term entered the Arabic language as sukkar, and as succarum in medieval Latin.

The sugar cane culture originated in India between 1800 and 1700 BC. China infiltrates. Several Chinese sources report that people living in the Ganges Valley taught the Chinese how to make sugar by digesting its stems. Ancient sailors from China likely brought it to the Philippines, Java, and even Hawaii. When Spanish sailors appeared in the Pacific many centuries later, wild sugar cane was already growing on many Pacific islands.

Obviously, the first mention of sugar in ancient times goes back to the time of Alexander the Great's expedition to India. 327 BC Chr. One of his generals, Nearch, reported, "It is said that reeds grow in India that produce honey without the help of bees. It is as if it can be used to make an intoxicating drink, even though the plant does not grow fruit." Five hundred years later, Galen, the supreme medical authority of antiquity, recommended "Sakcharon from India and Arabia" as a remedy for gastric, intestinal and kidney diseases. The Persians too, although much later, used to consume sugar from the Indians, and at the same time did much to improve cleaning methods. As early as the 700s, Nestorian monks in the Euphrates were successfully producing white sugar with ashes for cleaning.

Sugar appeared in Europe during the Crusades. Under the Arabs, the Crusaders learned about sugar made from sugar cane. Arabs spread from the 7th to the 9th centuries. Their possessions in the Middle East, North Africa and Spain brought the sugar cane culture to the Mediterranean. A few centuries later, the Crusaders returning from the Holy Land brought sugar to all of Western Europe. As a result of the collision of these two great expansions, Venice, located at the crossroads of the trade routes of the Muslim and Christian worlds, eventually became the center of the European sugar trade and remained for more than 500 years.

In Russia, the first sugar was made from imported raw sugar cane. On March 14, 1718, Peter I.the merchant Pavel Vestov the privilege of developing a sophisticated product. In the XVIII century. There were 7 refineries in Russia that processed raw sugar from sugar cane. The first attempts to grow sugar cane in southern Russia go back to the end of the 18th century. Later they were repeated many times, but were unsuccessful since sugar cane is a culture of the tropics and subtropics. The reed cultivation area in the world is more than 15 million hectares, the yield of technical stalks is around 60 t / ha.

Columbus brought sugar cane to America on his second voyage to Santo Domingo, from where the cane was brought to Cuba in 1493. The development of the sugar industry in Latin America is closely related to the development of slavery. The Spanish colonial rulers brought the first slaves from Africa to Cuba in 1516.

At the beginning of the 15th century Portuguese and Spanish sailors spread the sugar cane culture on the islands of the Atlantic Ocean. Its plantations first appeared in Madeira, the Azores, and the Cape Verde Islands. In 1506 Pedro de Atienza ordered the cultivation of sugar cane in Santo Domingo (Haiti) - this is how this culture penetrated the New World. In just 30 years after its appearance in the Caribbean, it has become so widespread there that it has become one of the most important in the West Indies, now known as the "Sugar Islands". The role of the sugar produced here grew rapidly with increasing demand in the northern European countries, especially after the Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453 and the importance of the eastern Mediterranean as a supplier of sugar decreased.

With the spread of sugar cane in the West Indies and the penetration of its culture into South America, more and more workers were required to grow and process it. The aborigines, who survived the invasion of the first conquerors, were not very amenable to exploitation, and the planters found a way out of importing slaves from Africa. In the end, it turned out that sugar production was inextricably linked to the slave system and the bloody unrest on the West Indies in the 18th and 19th centuries. In the beginning, sugar cane presses were powered by oxen or horses. Later, in places blown by trade winds, they were replaced by more efficient wind turbines. However, the entire production was still quite primitive. After pressing raw cane, the resulting juice was cleaned with lime, clay or ash and then evaporated in copper or iron tanks under which a fire was made. Refining was reduced to dissolve the crystals, boil the mixture, and then recrystallize. Even today, the remains of stone mills and abandoned copper vessels in the West Indies are a reminder of the islands' previous owners who made fortunes from this profitable business. Until the middle of the 17th century The main sugar producers in the world are Santo Domingo and Brazil.

Sugarcane first appeared in the modern US in 1791 in Louisiana, where it was brought from Santo Domingo by the Jesuits. True, they first grew it here to chew on cute stems. Forty years later, two enterprising colonists, Antonio Mendes and Etienne de Bore, planted his plantations on what is now New Orleans with the aim of making refined sugar for sale. After de Boret continued to operate successfully, other landowners followed suit, and sugar cane was grown across Louisiana.

In the future, the most important events in the history of cane sugar will be limited to important improvements in the technology of its cultivation, mechanical processing and the final cleaning of the product.

Recycling. The reeds are chopped first to make it easier for the juice to be squeezed out further. Then he steps into the three-roll press. Usually, the reeds are squeezed twice and watered between the first and second times to dilute the sweet liquid contained in the pulp (this process is called maceration).

The resulting so-called "diffusion juice" (usually gray or dark green in color) contains sucrose, glucose, gum, pectin, acids and various types of impurities. The cleaning methods have hardly changed over the centuries. Previously, the juice was heated in large kettles over an open fire and ashes were added to remove "non-sugar". Use milk of lime to precipitate impurities. If sugar is made based on local consumption, the diffusion juice is immediately treated with sulfur dioxide (sulfur dioxide) before adding lime to speed up the bleaching and cleaning process. Sugar turns yellowish, i.e. not completely peeled, but pleasant enough to taste. In both cases, after adding lime, the juice is poured into the clarifier-clarifier and held there at 110-116. C under pressure.

The next important step in the production of raw sugar is evaporation. Juice flows through pipes into evaporators, where it is heated by steam flowing through a closed pipe system. When the dry matter concentration reaches 40-50%, evaporation is continued in a vacuum apparatus. The result is a mass of sugar crystals suspended in thick molasses called molasses massecuite. The mass cuvette is centrifuged, whereby molasses is removed through the mesh walls of the centrifuge, in which only sucrose crystals remain. The purity of this raw sugar is 96-97%. The removed molasses (mass suite edema) is boiled again, crystallized and centrifuged. The resulting second serving of raw sugar is a little less pure. Another crystallization is then carried out. The remaining edema often still contains up to 50% sucrose, but can no longer crystallize due to the large amount of impurities. This product ("black molasses") goes to the USA mainly for fodder. In some countries, such as India, where the soil is in dire need of fertilization, the mass suite drain is simply plowed into the ground.

The refinement boils down to the following briefly. First, the raw sugar is mixed with sugar syrup to dissolve the remains of the molasses that envelop the crystals. The resulting mixture (reflux mass) is centrifuged. The centrifuged crystals are washed with steam to give an almost white product. It dissolves and turns into a thick syrup. Lime and phosphoric acid are added so that impurities are created in the form of flakes and then filtered through charcoal (black granules made from animal bones). The main task in this phase is the complete discoloration and desalination of the product. For the refining of 45 kg of dissolved raw sugar, 4.5 to 27 kg of bone charcoal are used. The exact ratio is not fixed because the absorbency of the filter decreases as it is used. The resulting white mass is evaporated and, after crystallization, centrifuged, i.e. treat it in a similar way to sugar cane juice. The refined sugar is then dried and the remaining water (approx. 1%) is removed.

Production. Important manufacturers are Brazil, India, Cuba as well as China, Mexico, Pakistan, the USA, Thailand, Australia and the Philippines.

Cultivated sugar cane is one of 37 species of the sugar cane genus (Myatlikovye family). It is this plant - the world's most important "supplier" of sugar.

The birthplace of the species are the Pacific Islands. From there it first made its way to Asia and then spread all over the world. It grows mainly in tropical zones, adapted to some regions and in the subtropics.

Attempts to grow it in our country were made during the reign of Peter I. In the era of the Soviet Union, plantations appeared in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.

Growing sugar cane is a perennial plant whose roots lie in the upper layers of the soil. The plant has sturdy stems: up to 6 m high with a diameter of 5 cm. The coloring is green, brown, purple, brightly colored. The internodes are smooth, matt. Growth rings are tight. Juice is extracted from the stems, from which sugar is made.

Green leaves are long, broad, and lanceolate. Leaf blades with finely toothed edges and a sharp point are very stiff. Inflorescence is a spreading panicle with spikelets in pairs. There are thin hairs around the spikelets. Thanks to these long, silky “strings”, the inflorescence appears fluffy.

Pollinated plants by the wind. After a while, fruits form - small einkorn kernels. Despite the fact that there are tens of thousands of flowers in each inflorescence, very few seeds are bound.

Growing

The industrial cultivation of sugar cane is recognized as inappropriate for our country. Even so, gardening enthusiasts do not leave the plant. Usually it is used annually. Usually 1-2 specimens are planted out of curiosity. But it is also quite possible to get “own” sugar, if this is desired and the garden area allows it.

This plant should be allocated the most lit place. In the fall, you should dig a plot of land, remove weeds, introduce complex mineral fertilizers or rotted manure. In the spring, the soil is dug up again, nitroammophoska is added and leveled.

Cultivated sugar cane seeds are offered for sale. Only after the soil has warmed up to + 10-15 ° C, 2 seeds are placed in a hole (approx. 1.5 cm deep), sprinkled with earth and gently watered. Shoots appear after 10 days.

ON THE PHOTO:Sugar cane seeds.

If the climatic conditions are not particularly favorable, it is recommended to grow seedlings. The seeds are placed in peat pots, and the grown seedlings are brought to the open ground.

ON THE PHOTO:Sugar cane can be sown through seedlings.

In a sugar cane culture, culture seeds are seldom produced. However, it is worth getting your own plant material. Of the panicles that have appeared, only the largest should be left, the rest should be removed. When the inflorescences darken, they are cut off. Before the arrival of spring, they are held in suspension and then threshed.

Plants use cuttings for propagation. In the fall, choose the strongest, mature stems.After removing the apical part and foliage, they are placed in a trench. At the top, a 0.5 m high earthen mound is poured in, which comes out of the shelter in spring and is cut into segments of 25-30 cm with 2-3 buds each. In the open air, like seeds, they are transmitted when the soil warms up to + 15 ° C. The cuttings are placed horizontally in moist grooves and covered with a thin layer of soil.

ON THE PHOTO:Sugar cane cuttings.

Diseases and pests

Stem moth, bear.

breed

Seeds, cuttings.

Secrets of Success

Sugar cane seedlings cannot resist weeds. Weeding should be done regularly, being careful not to damage the roots of the plant.

The intense growth begins after 2 months and the harmful neighbors are no longer scary. At this point, it is necessary to add air and moisture to the roots.

Water the plant so that the soil is moist but not wet. It is recommended to use water heated under the sun. It is recommended to sprinkle from time to time in the evening. Active growth is encouraged by top dressing. It can be complex mineral fertilizers or organic substances - mullein, chicken droppings.

In sugar cane, additional stems grow from the root neck. If the plant has a decorative function, they will not be touched. To get sugar, the "extra" rung must be removed with secateurs so that the main scissors collect more juice. You can start harvesting immediately after the inflorescence.

Possible difficulties

In culture, the plant is practically not sick. With proper care, pest infestation is also unlikely. Regarding some of the nuances of growing this grain, I want to mention the following:

  • When the leaves turn from green to red, the sugar cane is lacking phosphorus. In this case, it is imperative to apply the appropriate fertilizer.
  • When growing plants, it should be noted that lowering the air temperature to + 20 ° C stops growth.
  • Cuttings sometimes dry or withered after winter storage. In this case, they need to be soaked in water for a day (above + 15 ° C).
  • The processing of the stems should take place immediately after cutting. Procrastination leads to a decrease in the amount of sugar.

Sugar cane comes from India, from where it first made its way to the countries of the Middle East and then to the Canary Islands and later to America. Sugarcane is currently bred in many tropical countries and extends from latitude 35 ° north to latitude 30 ° south. In South America, sugar cane plantations reach an altitude of 3,000 meters.

Refined, unrefined and unrefined cane sugar are for sale. Unrefined (or unrefined) cane sugar, known as brown, can be of several types.

Demerara is cane sugar made from cane grown in the Demerara River Valley in British Guiana, in the state of Guyana in South America. The crystals of this cane sugar are large, sticky, hard and colored golden brown. Demerara is used to sprinkle desserts, pastries and grilled fruits.

Muscavado is cane sugar with a strong molasses smell. This is unrefined sugar, it crystallizes immediately after the juice is boiled for the first time. The crystals are large but smaller than Demerar's. This sugar is very aromatic and is therefore particularly suitable for baking muffins and gingerbread.

Turbinado is a partially refined raw sugar, from the surface of which most of the molasses has been removed with steam and water. The color of the Turbinado crystals ranges from light gold to brown. The word "Turbinado" means "processed by a turbine". One of the most famous brands of this type of cane sugar is made in Hawaii.

Soft molasses sugar, also called black Barbados sugar, is a soft and moist dark cane sugar. Because of its high molasses content, it has a light caramel taste and aroma. Soft molasses sugar is used for baking, desserts and marinades.

Taste cane sugar

Due to the presence of molasses, cane molasses, enveloping sugar crystals, cane sugar has a caramel taste and aroma. Although different types of cane sugar can have very different tastes.

Combination of cane sugar with other products

It's hard to say what sugar doesn't associate with. It is the main sweetener. It is ideal for cream, vanilla, nuts, chocolate, fruit.

Use cane sugar when cooking

Cane sugar is widely used in cooking for the preparation of various types of flavored pastries: cookies, muffins, gingerbread, gingerbread.

Cane sugar is a sweetener for beverages: tea, coffee, cocoa, juices, cocktails, compotes.

Sugar is essential for making sweets, chocolate, creams and ice cream.

Cane sugar is not only added to desserts, but also in marinades, sweet and sour sauces, when braising carrots and beets. It is used in brewing and winemaking.

Cooking functions cane sugar

To test brown cane sugar, you need to dissolve it in water: real cane sugar does not lose its color when dissolved. If the sugar stays lightened and the water turns brown, it means that it is a fake, caramel-colored white sugar in front of you.

When the cane sugar has hardened, place it in a bowl with a slice of bread and sprinkle it with water. Then put it in the microwave for 30-40 seconds.

Storage cane sugar

Cane sugar can be stored in a cool place, but not more than a year. After buying it, it is better to pour it into a sealed container.

Traditional role in dishes

Sweetener for desserts.

Valid replacements

Cane sugar in recipes can be replaced with ordinary white sugar (beet sugar). You can replace cane sugar with maple sugar or maple syrup.

History of cane sugar

Sugar cane comes from India, where it was found in the 3rd century BC. Was introduced by the Arabs in the Middle East. Perhaps it was the Persians who repeatedly digested the raw sugar and received refined sugar. Sugar cane came to the Mediterranean countries from Persia. In the 15th century, cane was introduced to America where sugar cane plantations were established.

Sugar came to Russia under Peter I, and the first own cane sugar was made in St. Petersburg in 1719 in the factory of the merchant Peter Vestov. Sugar was very expensive at the time and was sold as a medicine.

Effect on the human body, useful substances

Refined cane sugar contains many useful trace elements thanks to molasses, cane molasses: magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium.

Cane sugar contains fiber and pectin and can be used (in appropriate amounts, of course!) In diets and for recovery from intense physical exertion.

Interesting facts about cane sugar

Sugar cane home

The birthplace of sugar cane is Bengal in India. Today it is Bangladesh.

The word sugar is of Indian origin

The word sugar comes from the Indian word saqkara.